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  1. There is an unmet need for review methods to support priority-setting, policy-making and strategic planning when a wide variety of interventions from differing disciplines may have the potential to impact a he...

    Authors: Annariina M. Koivu, Patricia J. Hunter, Pieta Näsänen-Gilmore, Yvonne Muthiani, Jaana Isojärvi, Pia Pörtfors, Ulla Ashorn and Per Ashorn

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:268

    Content type: Research

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  2. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) presents an unprecedented threat to global health worldwide. Accurately predicting the mortality risk among the infected individuals is crucial for prioritizing medical care and ...

    Authors: Cindy Feng, George Kephart and Elizabeth Juarez-Colunga

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:267

    Content type: Research

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  3. Long-term behavioral and health risk factors constitute a primary focus of research on the etiology of chronic diseases. Yet, identifying critical time-windows during which risk factors have the strongest impa...

    Authors: Maude Wagner, Francine Grodstein, Karen Leffondre, Cécilia Samieri and Cécile Proust-Lima

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:266

    Content type: Technical advance

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  4. Questionnaires remain one of the most common forms of data collection in epidemiology, psychology and other human-sciences. However, results can be badly affected by non-response. One way to potentially reduce...

    Authors: Benjamin Woolf and Phil Edwards

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:265

    Content type: Research

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  5. Eligibility guidelines in research trials are necessary to minimise confounds and reduce bias in the interpretation of potential treatment effects. There is limited extant research investigating how being deem...

    Authors: Christopher P. Dwyer, Helen McAneney, Fionnuala M. Rogers, Robert Joyce and Sinéad M. Hynes

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:264

    Content type: Research

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  6. Estimates of future survival can be a key evidence source when deciding if a medical treatment should be funded. Current practice is to use standard parametric models for generating extrapolations. Several eme...

    Authors: Benjamin Kearns, Matt D. Stevenson, Kostas Triantafyllopoulos and Andrea Manca

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:263

    Content type: Research

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  7. Multi-state models are used in complex disease pathways to describe a process where an individual moves from one state to the next, taking into account competing states during each transition. In a multi-state...

    Authors: Nikolaos Skourlis, Michael J. Crowther, Therese M-L. Andersson and Paul C. Lambert

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:262

    Content type: Software

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  8. AMSTAR-2 (‘A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews, version 2’) and ROBIS (‘Risk of Bias in Systematic Reviews’) are independent instruments used to assess the quality of conduct of systematic reviews/...

    Authors: Mateusz J. Swierz, Dawid Storman, Joanna Zajac, Magdalena Koperny, Paulina Weglarz, Wojciech Staskiewicz, Magdalena Gorecka, Anna Skuza, Adam Wach, Klaudia Kaluzinska, Justyna Bochenek-Cibor, Bradley C. Johnston and Malgorzata M. Bala

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:261

    Content type: Research

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  9. Markov system dynamic (MSD) model has rarely been used in medical studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of MSD model in prediction of metabolic syndrome (MetS) natural history.

    Authors: Abbas Rezaianzadeh, Esmaeil Khedmati Morasae, Davood Khalili, Mozhgan Seif, Ehsan Bahramali, Fereidoun Azizi and Pezhman Bagheri

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:260

    Content type: Research

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  10. Missing outcome data can lead to bias in the results of systematic reviews. One way to address missing outcome data is by requesting the data from the trial authors, but non-response is common. One way to pote...

    Authors: Benjamin Woolf and Phil Edwards

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:259

    Content type: Research

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  11. In many applications of instrumental variable (IV) methods, the treatments of interest are intrinsically time-varying and outcomes of interest are failure time outcomes. A common example is Mendelian randomiza...

    Authors: Joy Shi, Sonja A. Swanson, Peter Kraft, Bernard Rosner, Immaculata De Vivo and Miguel A. Hernán

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:258

    Content type: Research

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  12. Individual-patient data meta-analysis (IPD-MA) is an increasingly popular approach because of its analytical benefits. IPD-MA of observational studies must overcome the problem of confounding, otherwise biased...

    Authors: Fatema Tuj Johara, Andrea Benedetti, Robert Platt, Dick Menzies, Piret Viiklepp, Simon Schaaf and Edward Chan

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:257

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Propensity score matching is a statistical method that is often used to make inferences on the treatment effects in observational studies. In recent years, there has been widespread use of the technique in the...

    Authors: Daniele Bottigliengo, Ileana Baldi, Corrado Lanera, Giulia Lorenzoni, Jonida Bejko, Tomaso Bottio, Vincenzo Tarzia, Massimiliano Carrozzini, Gino Gerosa, Paola Berchialla and Dario Gregori

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:256

    Content type: Research

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  14. The COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected health systems and medical research worldwide but its impact on the global publication dynamics and non-COVID-19 research has not been measured. We hypothesized that...

    Authors: Marc Raynaud, Valentin Goutaudier, Kevin Louis, Solaf Al-Awadhi, Quentin Dubourg, Agathe Truchot, Romain Brousse, Nouredine Saleh, Alessia Giarraputo, Charlotte Debiais, Zeynep Demir, Anaïs Certain, Francine Tacafred, Esteban Cortes-Garcia, Safia Yanes, Jessy Dagobert…

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:255

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Clinical trials routinely have patients lost to follow up. We propose a methodology to understand their possible effect on the results of statistical tests by altering the concept of the fragility index to tre...

    Authors: Benjamin R. Baer, Stephen E. Fremes, Mario Gaudino, Mary Charlson and Martin T. Wells

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:254

    Content type: Research

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  16. The Oslo Sport Trauma Research Centre Questionnaire on Health Problems (OSTRC-H) has become a popular tool to monitor health status in athletes. Originally developed for adult athletes, the tool is today also ...

    Authors: Solveig E. Hausken-Sutter, Astrid Schubring, Stefan Grau, Klara Boije af Gennäs and Natalie Barker-Ruchti

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:252

    Content type: Research

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  17. For valid accelerometer-assessed physical activity (PA) data, several methodological aspects should be considered. We aimed to 1) visualize the applicability of absolute accelerometer cut-offs to classify PA i...

    Authors: Fabian Schwendinger, Jonathan Wagner, Denis Infanger, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss and Raphael Knaier

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:251

    Content type: Research

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  18. Novartis and the University of Oxford’s Big Data Institute (BDI) have established a research alliance with the aim to improve health care and drug development by making it more efficient and targeted. Using a ...

    Authors: Ann-Marie Mallon, Dieter A. Häring, Frank Dahlke, Piet Aarden, Soroosh Afyouni, Daniel Delbarre, Khaled El Emam, Habib Ganjgahi, Stephen Gardiner, Chun Hei Kwok, Dominique M. West, Ewan Straiton, Sibylle Haemmerle, Adam Huffman, Tom Hofmann, Luke J. Kelly…

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:250

    Content type: Technical advance

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  19. Scleroderma is a serious chronic autoimmune disease in which a patient’s disease state manifests in several irregularly spaced longitudinal measures of lung, heart, skin, and other organ systems. Threshold cro...

    Authors: Ji Soo Kim, Ami A. Shah, Laura K. Hummers and Scott L. Zeger

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:249

    Content type: Research

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  20. Not all research findings are translated to clinical practice. Reasons for lack of applicability are varied, and multiple frameworks and criteria exist to appraise the general applicability of epidemiological ...

    Authors: Quoc Dinh Nguyen, Erica M. Moodie, Philippe Desmarais, Robert Goulden, Marie-France Forget, Eric Peters, Sahar Saeed, Mark R. Keezer and Christina Wolfson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:248

    Content type: Research

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  21. Participation of general practitioners is crucial for health care studies. However, recruiting them is an ongoing challenge and participation rates of general practitioners around the globe are often low. One ...

    Authors: Patrick Hennrich, Christine Arnold and Michel Wensing

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:247

    Content type: Research

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  22. Although discontinuation is common in clinical trials, no study has been conducted to analyse the current situation and reasons for the suspension or discontinuation of drug clinical trials in China. This stud...

    Authors: Ben-nian Huo, Mao-lin Ai, Yun-tao Jia, Yao Liu, Yang Wang, Nan-ge Yin and Lin Song

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:246

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Multilevel logistic regression models are widely used in health sciences research to account for clustering in multilevel data when estimating effects on subject binary outcomes of individual-level and cluster...

    Authors: Nicholas Siame Adam, Halima S. Twabi and Samuel O.M. Manda

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:245

    Content type: Research

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  24. Graphical displays and data visualization are essential components of statistical analysis that can lead to improved understanding of clinical trial adverse event (AE) data. Correspondence analysis (CA) has be...

    Authors: Márcio A. Diniz, Gillian Gresham, Sungjin Kim, Michael Luu, N. Lynn Henry, Mourad Tighiouart, Greg Yothers, Patricia A. Ganz and André Rogatko

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:244

    Content type: Research

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  25. The purpose of a conference abstract is to summarize the main points of a research-related report that will be presented at an academic conference. However, some conferences accept and publish abstracts withou...

    Authors: Darko Novak and Livia Puljak

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:243

    Content type: Research

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  26. Identifying successful strategies to improve participant retention in longitudinal studies remains a challenge. In this study we evaluated whether non-traditional fieldworker shifts (after hours during the wee...

    Authors: N. F. Bell-Mandla, R. Sloot, G. Maarman, S. Griffith, A. Moore, S. Floyd, R. Hayes, S. Fidler, H. Ayles and P. Bock

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:242

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) are increasingly used as composite outcomes in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. However, it is unclear how observational studies most co...

    Authors: Elliott Bosco, Leon Hsueh, Kevin W. McConeghy, Stefan Gravenstein and Elie Saade

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:241

    Content type: Research

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  28. Previous research on data extraction methods in systematic reviews has focused on single aspects of the process. We aimed to provide a deeper insight into these methods by analysing a current sample of reviews.

    Authors: Roland Brian Büchter, Alina Weise and Dawid Pieper

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:240

    Content type: Research

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  29. Longitudinal assessments of usage are often conducted for multiple substances (e.g., cigarettes, alcohol and marijuana) and research interests are often focused on the inter-substance association. We propose a...

    Authors: Xiaolei Lin, Robin Mermelstein and Donald Hedeker

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:239

    Content type: Research

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  30. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) Common Data Model (CDM) can be used to transform observational health data to a common format. CDM transformation allows for analysis across disparate data...

    Authors: Patricia Biedermann, Rose Ong, Alexander Davydov, Alexandra Orlova, Philip Solovyev, Hong Sun, Graham Wetherill, Monika Brand and Eva-Maria Didden

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:238

    Content type: Research

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  31. While well-conducted systematic reviews (SRs) can provide the best evidence on the potential effectiveness of acupuncture, limitations on the methodological rigour of SRs may impact the trustworthiness of thei...

    Authors: Leonard Ho, Fiona Y. T. Ke, Charlene H. L. Wong, Irene X. Y. Wu, Andy K. L. Cheung, Chen Mao and Vincent C. H. Chung

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:237

    Content type: Research

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  32. Research on germline genetic variants relies on enough eligible participants which is difficult to achieve for rare diseases such as childhood cancer. With self-collection kits, participants can contribute gen...

    Authors: Nicolas Waespe, Sven Strebel, Denis Marino, Veneranda Mattiello, Fanny Muet, Tiago Nava, Christina Schindera, Fabien N. Belle, Luzius Mader, Adrian Spoerri, Claudia E. Kuehni and Marc Ansari

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:236

    Content type: Research

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  33. Re-randomisation trials involve re-enrolling and re-randomising patients for each new treatment episode they experience. They are often used when interest lies in the average effect of an intervention across a...

    Authors: Brennan C. Kahan, Ian R. White, Sandra Eldridge and Richard Hooper

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:235

    Content type: Research

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  34. Retaining participants over time is a frequent challenge in research studies evaluating long-term health outcomes. This study’s objective was to compare the impact of prepaid and postpaid incentives on respons...

    Authors: Morgan M. Millar, Lenora M. Olson, John M. VanBuren, Rachel Richards, Murray M. Pollack, Richard Holubkov, Robert A. Berg, Joseph A. Carcillo, Patrick S. McQuillen, Kathleen L. Meert, Peter M. Mourani and Randall S. Burd

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:233

    Content type: Research

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  35. Childhood malnutrition is a major cause of child mortality under the age of 5 in the sub-Saharan Africa region. This study sought to identify the risk factors and spatial distribution of the composite index of...

    Authors: Haile Mekonnen Fenta, Temesgen Zewotir and Essey Kebede Muluneh

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:232

    Content type: Research

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  36. The COVID-19 public health crisis has produced an immense and quickly evolving body of evidence. This research speed and volume, along with variability in quality, could overwhelm public health decision-makers...

    Authors: Sarah E. Neil-Sztramko, Emily Belita, Robyn L. Traynor, Emily Clark, Leah Hagerman and Maureen Dobbins

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:231

    Content type: Research

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  37. Patient satisfaction or experience with colorectal cancer screening can determine adherence to screening programs. An evaluation of validated patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) for measuring experience ...

    Authors: A. Selva, C. Selva, Y. Álvarez-Pérez, N. Torà, P. López, R. Terraza-Núñez, V. Rodríguez and I. Solà

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:230

    Content type: Research

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  38. After activation of the Hospital Readmission Reduction Program (HRRP) in 2012, hospitals nationwide experimented broadly with the implementation of Transitional Care (TC) strategies to reduce hospital readmiss...

    Authors: Glen Mays, Jing Li, Jessica Miller Clouser, Gaixin Du, Arnold Stromberg, Brian Jack, Huong Q. Nguyen and Mark V. Williams

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:228

    Content type: Research

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  39. Data harmonization is a powerful method to equilibrate items in measures that evaluate the same underlying construct. There are multiple measures to evaluate dementia related behavioral symptoms. Pre-statistic...

    Authors: Diefei Chen, Eric Jutkowitz, Skylar L. Iosepovici, John C. Lin and Alden L. Gross

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:227

    Content type: Research

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  40. Mediation analysis methodology underwent many advancements throughout the years, with the most recent and important advancement being the development of causal mediation analysis based on the counterfactual fr...

    Authors: Judith J. M. Rijnhart, Sophia J. Lamp, Matthew J. Valente, David P. MacKinnon, Jos W. R. Twisk and Martijn W. Heymans

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:226

    Content type: Research

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  41. There is a growing need for methods that acknowledge and successfully capture the dynamic interaction between context and implementation of complex interventions. Case study research has the potential to provi...

    Authors: Sara Paparini, Chrysanthi Papoutsi, Jamie Murdoch, Judith Green, Mark Petticrew, Trisha Greenhalgh and Sara E. Shaw

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:225

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Network meta-analysis (NMA) has attracted growing interest in evidence-based medicine. Consistency between different sources of evidence is fundamental to the reliability of the NMA results. The purpose of the...

    Authors: Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Sofia Tsokani, Ian R. White, Guido Schwarzer, Gerta Rücker, Dimitris Mavridis, Julian P. T. Higgins and Georgia Salanti

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:224

    Content type: Research

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  43. An increasing number of systematic reviews assessed the safety of surgical interventions over time. How well these systematic reviews were designed and conducted determines the reliability of evidence. In this...

    Authors: Xiaoqin Zhou, Linji Li, Lifeng Lin, Ke Ju, Joey S. W. Kwong and Chang Xu

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:223

    Content type: Research

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  44. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), especially multicentric, with complex interventions are methodically challenging. Careful planning under everyday conditions in compliance with the relevant international q...

    Authors: Sabine Striebich, Elke Mattern, Theresa Oganowski, Rainhild Schäfers and Gertrud Ayerle

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:222

    Content type: Research

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  45. Statistical inference based on small datasets, commonly found in precision oncology, is subject to low power and high uncertainty. In these settings, drawing strong conclusions about future research utility is...

    Authors: Arjun Sondhi, Brian Segal, Jeremy Snider, Olivier Humblet and Margaret McCusker

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:221

    Content type: Research

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  46. Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs) are subjective outcomes of disease and/or treatment in clinical research. For effective evaluations of PROs, high response rates are crucial. This study assessed the impact of ...

    Authors: Olaf M. Neve, Peter Paul G. van Benthem, Anne M. Stiggelbout and Erik F. Hensen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:220

    Content type: Research article

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  47. With the dramatic increase in the pipeline for new sickle cell disease (SCD) therapies in recent years, the time is ripe to ensure a robust body of evidence is available for decision making by regulators, paye...

    Authors: Ellen Tambor, Matoya Robinson, Lewis Hsu, Hsing-Yuan Chang and Jennifer Al Naber

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:219

    Content type: Research article

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