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Table 6 Association between a structured research question and reporting of key quality elements

From: Association between framing of the research question using the PICOT format and reporting quality of randomized controlled trials

Independent Variable Median Q1-Q3 Multivariable Model Univariate Models
  KSa   IRR 95% CI p value IRR 95% CI p value
Structured RQ         
Not complete PICOc 0 0 - 1 1 - - 1 - -
Complete PICO 1 0 - 1 1.530 1.311 - 1.786 < 0.0001 1.510 1.398 - 1.632 < 0.0001
Funding Source         
Othersc 0 0 - 1 1 - - 1 - -
Completely funded by industry 1 0 - 1 1.088 0.775 - 1.528 0.6249 1.112 0.761 - 1.623 0.5834
Journal of Publication         
Othersc 0 0 - 1 1 - - 1 - -
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 0 0 - 1 0.808 0.466 - 1.400 0.4473 0.924 0.515 - 1.658 0.7919
Sample Size 0 0 - 1 1.216d 0.876 - 1.689 0.2421 1.222 0.922 - 1.619 0.1623
  1. Use of a structured RQ is defined as the reporting of complete PICO
  2. Abbreviations: KS, Key score; Q1, quartile 1; Q3, quartile 3; IRR, incidence rate ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; GEE, generalized estimating equations; RCTs, randomized controlled trials.
  3. a Maximum possible score = 3
  4. b The value is an expression of the change in the average of the key score due to one unit increase in PICOT score.
  5. c Reference category
  6. d The sample size variable was log(10) transformed. The value is an expression of the change in the average of the key score due to one unit increase in sample size in the log scale.