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Table 4 Positive predictive value (%) of the South Asian and Chinese surname lists compared against self-reported ethnicity, stratified by sex, age and immigration status.

From: Surname lists to identify South Asian and Chinese ethnicity from secondary data in Ontario, Canada: a validation study

Characteristic South Asian Chinese
Overall 89.3 91.9
Sex   
   Male 91.4 92.1
   Female 86.5 91.7
Age   
   44 or younger 89.2 92.6
   45 to 64 88.0 90.0
   65 or older 94.6 93.0
Immigration status   
   Born in Canada 58.7 77.8
   Immigrant ≤10 years 95.2 95.9
   Immigrant 11 to 20 years 89.6 94.1
   Immigrant > 20 years 88.6 88.1