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Table 2 Mean raw scores and mean gender item bias for men and women.

From: The 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II): a nonparametric item response analysis

Items Men Women Bias
1. Standing for long periods such as 30 minutes? 2.51 2.71** .138
2. Taking care of your household responsibilities? 2.93 3.29** .098
3. Learning a new task, for example, learning how to get to a new place? 2.94 3.18** .108
4. How much of a problem did you have in joining in community activities (for example, festivities, religious or other activities) in the same way as anyone else can? 3.40 3.46* .029
5. How much have you been emotionally affected by your health problems? 3.48 3.54 .011
6. Concentrating on doing something for ten minutes? 3.17 3.23 .008
7. Walking a long distance such as a kilometre [or equivalent]? 2.90 3.16** .077
8. Washing your whole body? 2.18 2.25* .186
9. Getting dressed? 2.07 2.15* .188
10. Dealing with people you do not know? 3.24 3.29 .055
11. Maintaining a friendship? 2.91 2.89 .069
12. Your day to day work? 3.43 3.46 .036
  1. Note: Bias refers to bias in expected item scores. Tests of significance indicate differences between men and women.
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.001.