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Table 2 Version characteristics, distributions of student responses, and comparisons of versions of the scenario.

From: Interpretation of evidence in data by untrained medical students: a scenario-based study

  Version A Version B Version C Version D A vs. B A vs C C vs. D
P value (H0: absence of disease) 0.04 0.11 0.08 0.08    
Evidence from p value favours Disease No disease No disease No disease    
Likelihood ratio (LR) in favour of disease 0.25 4 0.25 0.125    
Evidence from LR favours No disease Disease No disease No disease    
Interpretation of result:      p < 0.001 p = 0.34 p = 0.020
   For 21 (7.5) 169 (69.0) 9 (5.5) 5 (3.3)    
   Against 122 (43.6) 11 (4.5) 83 (50.3) 56 (36.8)    
   Neither for nor against 137 (48.9) 65 (26.5) 73 (44.2) 91 (59.9)    
Interpreted the result as for or against disease 143 (51.1) 180 (73.5) 92 (55.8) 61 (40.1) p < 0.001 p = 0.34 p = 0.005
Interpretation excluding the undecided      p < 0.001 p = 0.27 p = 0.74
   For 21 (14.7) 169 (93.9) 9 (9.8) 5 (8.2)    
   Against 122 (85.3) 11 (6.1) 83 (90.2) 56 (91.8)    
Strength of evidence among majority opinion (N = 122) (N = 169) (N = 83) (N = 56) P < 0.001
linear trend
p = 0.43
linear trend
p = 0.58
linear trend
   Very strong 5 (4.1) 2 (1.2) 1 (1.2) 3 (5.4)    
   Strong 22 (18.0) 54 (32.0) 13 (15.7) 12 (21.4)    
   Moderate 39 (32.0) 95 (56.2) 28 (33.7) 12 (21.4)    
   Weak 51 (41.8) 17 (10.1) 39 (47.0) 26 (46.4)    
   Absent 5 (4.1) 1 (0.6) 2 (2.4) 3 (5.4)