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Table 4 Bias on the variance of the δ j parameters as a function of the rate of missing data per item (π), the value of the correlation coefficient ρ between the latent variable Θ and the propensity to have missing data ξ for each method for handling missing data (results for w = 0/w = 1)

From: Imputation by the mean score should be avoided when validating a Patient Reported Outcomes questionnaire by a Rasch model in presence of informative missing data

  π= 10% π= 20% π= 30%
Method ρ= 0.0 ρ= -0.4 ρ= -0.9 ρ= 0.0 ρ= -0.4 ρ= -0.9 ρ= 0.0 ρ= -0.4 ρ= -0.9
PMS -0.05/-0.07 -0.05/-0.07 -0.06/-0.08 -0.09/-0.10 -0.09/-0.10 -0.09/-0.11 -0.10/-0.12 -0.10/-0.11 -0.09/-0.09
PMS-R -0.08/-0.08 -0.08/-0.08 -0.08/-0.08 -0.13/-0.13 -0.13/-0.13 -0.13/-0.13 -0.16/-0.15 -0.15/-0.14 -0.15/-0.13
IMS 0.20/0.21 0.20/0.21 0.20/0.20 0.37/0.41 0.38/0.39 0.40/0.39 0.47/0.56 0.49/0.53 0.55/0.54
IMS-R -0.03/-0.03 -0.03/-0.03 -0.03/-0.03 -0.05/-0.05 -0.05/-0.05 -0.04/-0.05 -0.06/-0.07 -0.06/-0.07 -0.03/-0.06
CIM 0.10/0.13 0.10/0.13 0.09/0.12 0.20/0.27 0.20/0.25 0.18/0.23 0.28/0.39 0.26/0.36 0.24/0.31
CIM-R 0.03/-0.03 0.02/-0.03 0.02/-0.02 0.05/0.06 0.05/0.05 0.03/0.03 0.07/0.07 0.06/0.06 0.06/0.04
ICS -0.06/-0.06 -0.06/-0.06 -0.06/-0.06 -0.10/-0.09 -0.09/-0.09 -0.10/-0.09 -0.11/-0.11 -0.11/-0.10 -0.11/-0.10
LOG 0.16/0.16 0.16/0.16 0.16/0.15 0.28/0.31 0.29/0.29 0.30/0.28 0.38/0.43 0.40/0.40 0.44/0.37
LOG-R -0.00/-0.00 -0.00/-0.00 -0.00/-0.00 -0.02/-0.01 -0.01/-0.02 -0.01/-0.02 -0.03/-0.03 -0.02/-0.03 0.00/-0.03
MOK 0.16/0.16 0.16/0.16 0.16/0.16 0.30/0.32 0.31/0.31 0.31/0.30 0.40/0.43 0.41/0.42 0.43/0.40
RAS -0.22/-0.21 -0.23/-0.22 -0.22/-0.21 -0.34/-0.31 -0.34/-0.31 -0.34/-0.30 -0.39/-0.33 -0.39/-0.32 -0.40/-0.30
RAS-R -0.18/-0.18 -0.18/-0.17 -0.18/-0.17 -0.28/-0.26 -0.28/-0.26 -0.28/-0.25 -0.33/-0.30 -0.32/-0.29 -0.32/-0.27
RAI -0.22/-0.21 -0.22/-0.21 -0.22/-0.22 -0.19/-0.23 -0.19/-0.22 -0.20/-0.22 -0.19/-0.21 -0.19/-0.21 -0.20/-0.19
WORST -0.01/0.08 -0.01/0.07 -0.01/0.08 0.11/0.26 0.09/0.25 0.06/0.22 0.20/0.43 0.13/0.37 0.06/0.30
NOIMP 0.00/0.00 0.00/0.00 0.00/0.00 0.00/0.00 0.01/0.01 0.01/0.00 0.01/0.00 0.01/0.00 0.03/0.00
LD 0.00/0.00 0.02/0.02 0.09/0.08 0.00/0.00 0.09/0.08 0.42/0.37 0.01/0.02 0.21/0.19 0.98/0.92
FC 0.00/0.00 0.00/0.00 0.00/0.00 0.00/0.00 0.00/0.00 0.00/0.00 0.00/0.00 0.00/0.00 0.00/-0.00