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Table 2 Case-series adjusted analysis for 1 year observation period

From: A self-controlled case series to assess the effectiveness of beta blockers for heart failure in reducing hospitalisations in the elderly

Risk Periods Number of Hospitalisations Person-Years Adjusted age and study month only RR(95% CI) Adjusted* RR(95% CI)
Baseline unexposed Period
Unexposed 3275 2660 1.00 (1.00 - 1.00) 1.00 (1.00 - 1.00)
Pre-exposure to a beta blocker for heart failure
6-8 weeks 18 22 1.37 (0.93 - 2.01) 1.29 (0.88 - 1.89)
4-6 weeks 52 23 3.74 (2.90 - 4.82) 3.47 (2.70 - 4.46)
2-4 weeks 87 24 5.85 (4.72 - 7.26) 4.97 (4.02 - 6.16)
1 day-2 weeks 255 25 15.98 (13.51 - 18.91) 12.72 (10.74 - 15.07)
Post-exposure to a beta blocker for heart failure
1 day-2 weeks 46 25 2.85 (2.18 - 3.72) 2.21 (1.70 - 2.88)
2-4 weeks 25 23 1.63 (1.16 - 2.29) 1.29 (0.92 - 1.80)
1-4 months 94 107 1.34 (1.08 - 1.67) 1.18 (0.94 - 1.47)
4-8 months 46 76 0.78 (0.58 - 1.04) 0.76 (0.57 - 1.02)
8-12 months 15 24 0.66 (0.42 - 1.05) 0.62 (0.39 - 0.99)
  1. *Adjusted for age at heart failure hospitalisation[8], study month and time-varying covariates which were assessed quarterly; co-morbidities using the Australian adaption of Rx-Risk-V[19], number of prescribers, admission into aged care and prescription of frusemide, ACE/A2RB, digoxin and aldosterone antagonists