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Table 3 Case-series analysis for 4 year observation period

From: A self-controlled case series to assess the effectiveness of beta blockers for heart failure in reducing hospitalisations in the elderly

Risk Periods Number of Hospitalisations Person-Years Adjusted age and study month only RR(95% CI) Adjusted* RR(95% CI)
Baseline unexposed Period
Unexposed 13541 34944 1.00 (1.00 - 1.00) 1.00 (1.00 - 1.00)
Pre-exposure to a beta blocker for heart failure
6-8 weeks 137 147 2.22 (2.00 - 2.45) 2.24 (2.02 - 2.48)
4-6 weeks 237 148 3.79 (3.50 - 4.11) 3.82 (3.52 - 4.14)
2-4 weeks 380 149 5.93 (5.54 - 6.34) 5.92 (5.54 - 6.34)
1 day-2 weeks 872 150 13.04 (12.38 - 13.73) 12.95 (12.29 - 13.63)
Post-exposure to a beta blocker for heart failure
1 day-2 weeks 190 149 2.75 (2.52 - 3.01) 2.74 (2.51 - 3.00)
2-4 weeks 156 145 2.27 (2.06 - 2.50) 2.27 (2.06 - 2.50)
1-4 months 488 734 1.71 (1.61 - 1.82) 1.68 (1.58 - 1.79)
4-8 months 322 685 1.21 (1.12 - 1.30) 1.18 (1.10 - 1.27)
8-12 months 212 535 0.93 (0.85 - 1.02) 0.90 (0.82 - 0.98)
>12 months 458 1358 0.65 (0.60 - 0.70) 0.61 (0.57 - 0.66)
  1. *Adjusted for age at heart failure hospitalisation[8], study month and time-varying covariates which were assessed quarterly; co-morbidities using the Australian adaption of Rx-Risk-V[19], number of prescribers, admission into aged care and prescription of frusemide, ACE/A2RB, digoxin and aldosterone antagonists