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Table 1 Demographic, clinical and psychological characteristics of the whole sample of type 2 diabetes participants; as well as separated by gender and hospital where they have been treated

From: Validation of the Turkish version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

  Whole sample Istanbul University Hospital Cerrahpaşa University Hospital
   Male female male female
Patients 100% (151) 31% (46) 32% (49) 15% (23) 22% (33)
Age in years (SD); range 56 (10) 28 - 81 56 (10) 28 - 75 55 (9) 36 - 79 60 (13) 30 - 81 56 (9) 40 - 73
BMI (SD); range 29.0 (4.5) 21 - 45 27.3 (3.4) 21 - 36 29.7 (4.6) 23 - 41 28.8 (3.9) 23 - 38 30.7 (5.7) 23 - 45
Diabetes duration      
< 1 year 11% (16) 9% (4/46) 2% (1/49) 26% (6/23) 15% (5/33)
1-4 years 30% (45) 28% (13/46) 35% (17/49) 22% (5/23) 30% (10/33)
5-10 years 37% (56) 39% (18/46) 41% (20/49) 35% (8/23) 30% (10/33)
> 10 years 22% (34) 24% (11/46) 22% (11/49) 17% (4/23) 25% (8/33)
Level of education      
Primary school 20% (30) 2% (1/46) 25% (12/49) 9% (2/23) 46% (15/33)
Middle school 14% (21) 15% (7/46) 6% (3/49) 13% (3/23) 24% (8/33)
College 25% (38) 35% (16/46) 25% (12/49) 30% (7/23) 9% (3/33)
University 41% (62) 48% (22/46) 44% (22/49) 48% (11/23) 21% (7/33)
CES-D; m (SD) 11 (9.7) 9.7 (7.8) 11.6 (8.9) 7.3 (8.1) 14.3 (13.0)
CES-D ≥ 16; 24% (36) 13% (6/46) 25% (12/49) 22% (5/23) 40% (13/33)
WHO-5; m (SD) 62.5 (27.4) 67.9 (26.4) 58.7 (25.9) 67.6 (25.7) 57.5 (30.8)
WHO ≤ 28, 13% (19) 11% (5/46) 14% (7/49) 4% (1/23) 18% (6/33)
PAID; m(SD) 26.8 (18.7) 28 (23) 34 (22) 30 (23) 39 (24)
PAID ≥ 40, 27% (40) 24% (11/46) 37% (18/49) 17% (4/23) 21% (7/33)
  1. * physical complications associated with diabetes;
  2. 35 patients (23%) reported one complication; 15 (10%) reported two complications; 4 (3%) reported three complications; and 1 patient (1%) reported four complications