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Table 1 Examples of discrepancies identified during cross-cultural adaptation of IPAQ and their resolution

From: The short international physical activity questionnaire: cross-cultural adaptation, validation and reliability of the Hausa language version in Nigeria

Issue Resolution
Selection of vocabulary that responds to the uses and custom in Hausa to avoid ambiguity on the final Hausa version. Adjustment of the second person pronoun "you" to third person pronouns "he, she" to accommodate gender applicability to Hausa version of IPAQ.
In Hausa, the third person pronouns are used for questions because of gender sensitivity. The words "ka" and "ki" are used respectively to distinguish questions for male and female.
Adjustment of English words to match words with familiar concept in Hausa/Nigeria. Vigorous activity: The word "vigorous" can be misunderstood, as it is not commonly used in Nigeria. The word "very hard" is selected as replacement, because it is more representative of the language used in Nigeria.
Moderate activity: the word "hard" was used to replace moderate, because the word is more suitable for the intended activity intensity in Nigeria.
Experiential equivalence: selection of activities equivalent to the Hausa culture. Item 1: Examples of very hard (vigorous) activities are given that are common in Hausa cultures/Nigeria such as carrying a heavy bucket of water on the head, carrying a two-year-old child on the back and farming (making ridges and hoeing).
Item 2: Hard (moderate) activities commonly engaged in Hausa culture/Nigeria are provided as examples, such as pounding grains, sweeping compounds and weeding or planting seedlings.
Item 3 and 4: Walking to the farm and work was added as a common walking activity in Nigeria. Sitting doing "course work" was replaced with "house work", and sitting "chatting with families" was included as an example of sedentary activity in Nigeria.