RVSOM statistics plotted against study number for the flouride toothpaste study. (a) Variance shift estimates, . (b) Treatment effect estimates . (c) Random effect variance estimates . (d) Likelihood ratio test statistics for a RVSOM for study j, plotted against study number. 95th percentile of the empirical distribution under the null hypothesis shown for the first k order statistics for each test: k = 1 (dotted line), k = 2 (dashed line) and k = 3 (solid line).