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Table 5 Scenarios 9 & 10: 30% 'good' prognosis, ×3 'good' prognosis survival, 10% and 25% switching probabilities, 100% treatment effect for switchers, uniform distribution for switching times

From: Assessing methods for dealing with treatment switching in randomised controlled trials: a simulation study

True HR and eψ Method Mean estimate Mean SE SE of mean 95% Confidence interval Bias MSE Coverage (%) Successful estimation (%)
      Lower Upper     
  Hazard ratio methods          
  ITT 0.9136 0.0911 0.0926 0.7515 1.1107 0.0136 0.0088 94.8 100.0
  PP - Exclude switchers 0.9235 0.0979 0.0968 0.7504 1.1367 0.0235 0.0099 94.6 100.0
  PP - Censor at switch 1.0721 0.1137 0.1128 0.8709 1.3197 0.1721 0.0424 63.7 100.0
  Time-dependent covariate 1.2253 0.1249 0.1254 1.0035 1.4962 0.3253 0.1215 15.2 100.0
  Law and Kaldor 0.9121 0.1173 0.1223 0.7088 1.1737 0.0121 0.0151 94.1 100.0
  Loeys and Goethebeur 0.8933 - 0.1137 0.6975 1.1444 -0.0067 0.0130 95.3 100.0
0.9 & 1.23 AFT methods          
  ITT 1.2399 0.2523 0.2519 0.8323 1.8479 0.0054 0.0635 94.7 100.0
  PP - Exclude switchers 1.2159 0.0979 0.2580 0.7959 1.8583 -0.0187 0.0669 94.9 100.0
  PP - Censor at switch 0.8983 0.1911 0.1890 0.5922 1.3632 -0.3363 0.1488 64.4 100.0
  Robins and Tsiatis - Logrank 1.2838 - 0.3018 0.8085 2.0389 0.0492 0.0935 94.6 100.0
  Robins and Tsiatis - Cox 1.2854 - 0.3020 0.8073 2.0820 0.0508 0.0938 94.7 95.2
  Robins and Tsiatis - Exponential 1.2895 - 0.2934 0.9593 1.8561 0.0549 0.0891 84.8 99.8
  Robins and Tsiatis - Weibull 1.2836 - 0.3003 0.8153 2.0802 0.0490 0.0926 94.5 99.8
  Branson and Whitehead 1.2713 0.2589 0.2823 0.8530 1.8954 0.0368 0.0810 92.9 100.0
  Walker et al 2.9706 1.4458 1.4409 1.1904 20.7004 1.7360 5.0898 57.0 98.6
  Hazard ratio methods          
  ITT 0.7390 0.0760 0.0777 0.6041 0.9041 0.0390 0.0076 92.0 100.0
  PP - Exclude switchers 0.7267 0.0791 0.0800 0.5872 0.8995 0.0267 0.0071 93.8 100.0
  PP - Censor at switch 0.8418 0.0918 0.0938 0.6798 1.0422 0.1418 0.0289 60.1 100.0
  Time-dependent covariate 0.9698 0.1012 0.1054 0.7904 1.1899 0.2698 0.0839 14.8 100.0
  Law and Kaldor 0.7397 0.0998 0.1027 0.5679 0.9637 0.0397 0.0121 92.8 100.0
  Loeys and Goethebeur 0.6840 - 0.0908 0.5243 0.8886 -0.0160 0.0085 95.5 100.0
0.7 & 2.04 AFT methods          
  ITT 1.9110 0.4010 0.4163 1.2669 2.8838 -0.1298 0.1901 92.5 100.0
  PP - Exclude switchers 1.9836 0.0791 0.4501 1.2841 3.0655 -0.0573 0.2059 94.7 100.0
  PP - Censor at switch 1.4612 0.3165 0.3284 0.9560 2.2344 -0.5796 0.4438 59.4 100.0
  Robins and Tsiatis - Logrank 2.1150 - 0.5430 1.3172 3.4305 0.0742 0.3004 94.7 100.0
  Robins and Tsiatis - Cox 2.1140 - 0.5395 1.2935 27.2997 0.0732 0.2964 94.9 92.2
  Robins and Tsiatis - Exponential 2.1112 - 0.5439 1.4578 3.1966 0.0704 0.3008 87.4 100.0
  Robins and Tsiatis - Weibull 2.1150 - 0.5434 1.3189 3.5350 0.0742 0.3008 94.8 100.0
  Branson and Whitehead 2.0643 0.4343 0.4923 1.3670 3.1186 0.0235 0.2430 92.2 100.0
  Walker et al 4.1987 2.1153 1.6132 1.6252 17.0861 2.1579 7.2589 68.2 75.4