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Table 6 Scenarios 13 & 14: 30% 'good' prognosis, ×3 'good' prognosis survival, 50% and 75% switching probabilities, 100% treatment effect for switchers, uniform distribution for switching times

From: Assessing methods for dealing with treatment switching in randomised controlled trials: a simulation study

True HR and eψ Method Mean estimate Mean SE SE of mean 95% Confidence interval Bias MSE Coverage (%) Successful estimation (%)
      Lower Upper     
  Hazard ratio methods          
  ITT 0.9406 0.0940 0.0965 0.7733 1.1442 0.0406 0.0110 92.2 100.0
  PP - Exclude switchers 1.0018 0.1448 0.1472 0.7547 1.3300 0.1018 0.0320 89.6 100.0
  PP - Censor at switch 2.2865 0.3323 0.3282 1.7198 3.0403 1.3865 2.0301 0.0 100.0
  Time-dependent covariate 3.2815 0.4544 0.4520 2.5017 4.3050 2.3815 5.8757 0.0 100.0
  Law and Kaldor 0.9508 0.1230 0.1263 0.7379 1.2251 0.0508 0.0185 93.7 100.0
  Loeys and Goethebeur 0.8548 - 0.2874 0.4414 1.7657 -0.0452 0.0847 93.6 99.9
0.9 & 1.23 AFT methods          
  ITT 1.1696 0.2386 0.2446 0.7843 1.7447 -0.0650 0.0640 92.6 100.0
  PP - Exclude switchers 1.0631 0.1448 0.3143 0.5983 1.8922 -0.1715 0.1282 90.0 100.0
  PP - Censor at switch 0.2100 0.0626 0.0640 0.1172 0.3769 -1.0246 1.0539 0.0 100.0
  Robins and Tsiatis - Logrank 1.2876 - 0.4161 0.6611 2.3440 0.0530 0.1759 94.4 100.0
  Robins and Tsiatis - Cox 1.2835 - 0.4156 0.6581 2.3451 0.0489 0.1751 94.4 95.9
  Robins and Tsiatis - Exponential 1.3120 - 0.3923 0.9033 2.0554 0.0774 0.1599 84.0 99.7
  Robins and Tsiatis - Weibull 1.2898 - 0.4125 0.6781 2.3512 0.0553 0.1732 94.5 99.8
  Branson and Whitehead 1.2789 0.2613 0.3755 0.8571 1.9090 0.0443 0.1429 82.6 100.0
  Walker et al 2.6653 0.9576 0.9545 1.3297 5.5524 1.4307 2.9579 46.7 99.9
  Hazard ratio methods          
  ITT 0.8109 0.0842 0.0843 0.6616 0.9939 0.1109 0.0194 71.4 100.0
  PP - Exclude switchers 0.7834 0.1147 0.1158 0.5880 1.0437 0.0834 0.0204 89.7 100.0
  PP - Censor at switch 1.7695 0.2612 0.2559 1.3250 2.3634 1.0695 1.2092 0.0 100.0
  Time-dependent covariate 2.5841 0.3613 0.3598 1.9647 3.3991 1.8841 3.6791 0.0 100.0
  Law and Kaldor 0.8147 0.1113 0.1125 0.6233 1.0649 0.1147 0.0258 81.4 100.0
  Loeys and Goethebeur 0.5287 - 0.1897 0.2352 1.0444 -0.1713 0.0653 86.9 96.9
0.7 & 2.04 AFT methods          
  ITT 1.5826 0.3351 0.3379 1.0452 2.3973 -0.4582 0.3242 72.8 100.0
  PP - Exclude switchers 1.7560 0.1147 0.5427 0.9817 3.1462 -0.2849 0.3757 90.5 100.0
  PP - Censor at switch 0.3494 0.1032 0.1020 0.1961 0.6240 -1.6914 2.8712 0.0 100.0
  Robins and Tsiatis - Logrank 2.1469 - 0.7376 1.0853 4.0598 0.1061 0.5552 95.7 100.0
  Robins and Tsiatis - Cox 2.1363 - 0.7256 1.0640 4.0757 0.0955 0.5356 95.9 92.4
  Robins and Tsiatis - Exponential 2.1549 - 0.7419 1.3002 3.6453 0.1140 0.5635 88.4 100.0
  Robins and Tsiatis - Weibull 2.1472 - 0.7359 1.0961 4.0901 0.1064 0.5528 95.6 100.0
  Branson and Whitehead 2.0328 0.4340 0.6210 1.3380 3.0899 -0.0080 0.3857 82.6 100.0
  Walker et al 4.2491 1.5202 1.2616 2.1208 8.6357 2.2083 6.4681 45.3 88.3