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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of advertisement-recruited and street-recruited participants

From: Bikeability and methodological issues using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES) in a metropolitan setting

  Advertisement-recruited participants Street-recruited participants
  Both I&S* Only I* Only S*   
Characteristic Women (n = 299-302) Men (n = 249-253) Women (n = 193-197) Men (n = 73-75) Women (n = 391-399) Men (n = 151-153) Women (n = 32-33) Men (n = 59-60)
Age in years, mean ± SD 46.9 ± 9.9 48.2 ± 10.6 47.5 ± 11.3 46.2 ± 11.9 49.4 ± 10.0 49.4 ± 10.6 42.0 ± 9.0 45.9 ± 10.7
Weight in kg, mean ± SD 64.5 ± 8.2 78.9 ± 10.6 63.8 ± 7.9 77.6 ± 8.3 65.0 ± 9.2 78.4 ± 9.4 61.8 ± 7.3 78.0 ± 10.0
Height in cm, mean ± SD 168.1 ± 6.2 180.9 ± 6.4 169.0 ± 5.6 181.7 ± 6.0 167.5 ± 6.4 179.9 ± 6.8 168.6 ± 5.2 182.0 ± 7.0
Body mass index, mean ± SD 22.8 ± 2.6 24.1 ± 3.1 22.4 ± 2.5 23.5 ± 2.7 23.2 ± 3.0 24.2 ± 2.5 21.7 ± 2.4 23.5 ± 2.7
Gainful employment, % 95 94 93 96 98 99 100 95
Educated at university level, % 78 74 82 80 71 66 73 75
An income above 25.000 SEK** a month, % 60 73 58 72 36 69 61 80
Participant and both parents born in Sweden, % 79 86 82 84 80 89 69 87
Having a driver's licence, % 94 96 92 91 90 95 91 97
Usually access to a car, % 74 82 58 52 74 86 76 80
Leaving home 7-9 a.m. to cycle to work, % 72 67 84 85 68 61 81 82
Number of bicycle-commuting trips per year***, mean ± SD 240.7 ± 122.1 280.1 ± 135.7 317.7 ± 136.6 320.8 ± 117.3 265.8 ± 131.4 271.0 ± 141.4 301.4 ± 136.9 349.7 ± 84.1
Overall physical health either good or very good, % 86 86 80 76 82 80 97 93
Overall mental health either good or very good, % 83 86 84 80 80 84 91 88
  1. Values are based on self-reports.
  2. *Both I&S = those who bicycle-commuted in both the inner urban and suburban areas, Only I = those who bicycle-commuted in only the inner urban area and Only S = those who bicycle-commuted in only the suburban area.
  3. **SEK = Swedish crown/krona, year 2005: €1 ≈ 9 SEK; US$1 ≈ 8 SEK.
  4. ***The number of bicycle-commuting trips per year is based on 239 women and 218 men in Both I&S, 161 women and 63 men in Only I and 316 women and 129 men in Only S and 18 women and 43 men in the street-recruited participant group. The low response rate is due to missing values in one or more of the 12 month leading to exclusion in the sum score.