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Table 4 Environment ratings by advertisement-recruited participants bicycle-commuting in the inner urban or suburban area

From: Bikeability and methodological issues using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES) in a metropolitan setting

  Women Men
  Only I* (n = 194-197) Only S* (n = 394-399) Difference Only I(n = 74-75) Only S(n = 151-153) Difference
Item Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SEd** p-value Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SEd p-value
1. On the whole 8.72 ± 3.35 11.63 ± 2.75 -2.92 ± 0.28 0.000 8.47 ± 3.33 11.14 ± 2.66 -2.67 ± 0.44 0.000
2. Hinders or stimulates 9.52 ± 3.52 11.73 ± 2.70 -2.21 ± 0.29 0.000 9.15 ± 2.78 11.08 ± 2.83 -1.94 ± 0.40 0.000
3. Exhaust fumes 10.16 ± 2.86 6.47 ± 3.75 3.69 ± 0.28 0.000 10.15 ± 2.74 6.35 ± 3.40 3.79 ± 0.42 0.000
4. Noise 9.78 ± 2.78 6.56 ± 3.75 3.21 ± 0.27 0.000 9.79 ± 2.78 6.78 ± 3.19 3.00 ± 0.43 0.000
5. Flow of motor vehicles 11.35 ± 2.93 6.99 ± 4.13 4.36 ± 0.29 0.000 11.27 ± 2.69 7.35 ± 3.55 3.92 ± 0.42 0.000
6. Speeds of motor vehicles 10.16 ± 2.63 7.81 ± 3.34 2.35 ± 0.25 0.000 8.91 ± 2.73 8.14 ± 3.15 0.76 ± 0.43 0.075
7. Speeds of bicyclists 9.91 ± 2.42 8.64 ± 2.51 1.27 ± 0.22 0.000 8.77 ± 2.59 7.80 ± 1.94 0.97 ± 0.34 0.005
8. Congestion: all types of vehicles 10.33 ± 2.97 5.35 ± 3.55 4.98 ± 0.28 0.000 10.77 ± 2.70 5.69 ± 3.23 5.09 ± 0.41 0.000
9. Congestion: bicyclists 9.01 ± 3.33 3.84 ± 2.98 5.17 ± 0.27 0.000 8.20 ± 3.67 3.50 ± 2.52 4.70 ± 0.47 0.000
10. Conflicts 7.81 ± 3.60 4.49 ± 3.44 3.32 ± 0.30 0.000 9.08 ± 3.38 5.01 ± 3.54 4.07 ± 0.49 0.000
11. Bicycle paths*** 5.45 ± 2.76 6.65 ± 2.84 -1.20 ± 0.24 0.000 4.73 ± 2.88 6.18 ± 2.78 -1.45 ± 0.40 0.000
12. Traffic: unsafe or safe 8.66 ± 3.59 11.61 ± 3.10 -2.94 ± 0.30 0.000 8.81 ± 3.54 11.46 ± 2.76 -2.64 ± 0.47 0.000
13. Greenery 7.43 ± 4.17 12.04 ± 2.88 -4.61 ± 0.33 0.000 7.33 ± 3.71 11.39 ± 2.84 -4.06 ± 0.49 0.000
14. Ugly or beautiful 10.62 ± 3.32 11.28 ± 2.73 -0.66 ± 0.27 0.017 10.68 ± 2.93 10.53 ± 2.68 0.15 ± 0.39 0.700
15. Course of the route 6.25 ± 3.43 4.74 ± 3.45 1.51 ± 0.30 0.000 7.29 ± 3.86 5.31 ± 3.18 1.99 ± 0.48 0.000
16. Hilliness 4.81 ± 3.46 5.78 ± 3.91 -0.97 ± 0.32 0.002 5.56 ± 3.48 5.93 ± 3.84 -0.37 ± 0.53 0.477
17. Red lights 7.87 ± 3.98 3.62 ± 3.52 4.26 ± 0.33 0.000 9.27 ± 3.61 3.90 ± 3.20 5.36 ± 0.47 0.000
18. Short or long 5.26 ± 2.64 6.46 ± 3.37 -1.20 ± 0.25 0.000 5.52 ± 2.75 7.08 ± 2.87 -1.56 ± 0.40 0.000
  1. *Only I = those who bicycle-commuted in only the inner urban area, and Only S = those who bicycle-commuted in only the suburban area.
  2. **SEd = standard error of difference.
  3. ***Minimal value = 0 and maximal value = 10.