Skip to main content

Table 4 Latent mean differences

From: Measurement invariance of the center for epidemiological studies depression scale (CES-D) among chinese and dutch elderly

  Chinese Dutch dc
  Ma SD Mb SD  
Somatic complaints 0.000 0.482 -0.261 0.324 -0.589
Depressive affect 0.000 0.570 -0.259 0.318 -0.506
Positive affect 0.000 0.354 -0.125 0.329 -0.361
Interpersonal problems 0.000 0.574 -0.323 0.184 -0.650
  1. a. Latent means for the Chinese sample are fixed to zero.
  2. b. Latent means for the Dutch group are freely estimated as deviations from the Chinese sample.
  3. c. Effect size calculations are based on Hancock (2001); negative d values indicate higher scores for Chinese elderly adults.