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Table 1 Reasons for participation in medicinal studies

From: Reasons for and against participation in studies of medicinal therapies for women with breast cancer: a debate

Reasons for participation Statistical output
Altruism (support of medical research and/or helping other patients) Support of medical research or helping other people (33%, n = 8) [11]; contribution to therapeutic knowledge (44%, n = 116) [18]; altruism in general (50%, n = 14) [19]; non-participants felt bad due to altruistic reasons as they themselves did not contribute to the study efforts (39%, n = 9) [19]
Wish for improvement (regarding own chances or regular medical care) Improve the chances for breast cancer prevention (P = 0.033; OR = 3.16; 95% CI: [1.10-9.06]) [12]; a regular medical care (58%, n = 154) [18], wish for helping themselves (50%, n = 14) [19]
Concern of breast cancer or often thinking about the topic of breast cancer Cancer thoughts (P = 0.002; OR = 2.30; 95% CI: [1.40-3.80]) [17], strong concerns regarding breast cancer (P = 0.01; OR = 0.15; 95% CI: [0.03-0.77]) [18]
Physical condition Women with non-metastasized carcinoma vs. metastasized carcinoma (RR = 2.80, P < 0.01) [14], good-excellent vs. fair-poor health status (P = 0.05; OR = 1.47; 95% CI: [1.25-1.98]) [17]
Age 49 ± 10 vs. 54 ± 11 years (mean ± SD) (P < 0.0001; OR = 1.05; 95% CI: [1.02-1.08]) [17]; under 60 years (P = 0.003; OR = 0.40, 95% CI: [0.22-0.73]) [18]
Memory of close person(s) with breast cancer 21% (n = 6) valued their own breast cancer risk as low, but nevertheless participated in the study out of respect or a memory of a close person who suffered from breast cancer [19]
Readiness for treatment in a study Nothing to lose by participating (33%; n = 8) [11]; general willingness (60%; n = 160) [18]
Acceptance of randomization Acceptance of randomization (P < 0.001; OR = 4.6; 95% CI: [2.7-7.7]) [16]
No placebo Placebo vs. no placebo (RR = 0.80; P = 0.05) [14]
Longer interval from diagnosis/surgery/end of therapy until enrollment For non-metastatic trials: if the study protocol planned an interval of 12 weeks or longer between diagnosis/op/end of therapy and recruiting in comparison to a shorter interval (RR = 1.36; P < 0.01) [14]
Already decided once to participate in a medicinal study Already having decided to participate in a study (P < 0.001; OR = 5.0; 95% CI: [2.9-8.7]) [16]
Predominantly advantages through the study Perceived value of the trial (P = 0.020; OR = 2.92; 95% CI: [1.18-7.21]) [12], predominant advantages of the study (50%, n = 14) [19]
Each treatment strategy seems helpful Each of the treatments seems to be beneficial (42%; n = 10) [11]
Idea of receiving a better treatment Idea to receive better treatment (25%; n = 6) [11]
Feeling, physicians must make decisions Medical decision-making preferences (P = 0.045; OR = 2.2; 95% CI: [1.0-4.9]) [16]
Feeling of not being able to reject physician's suggestion Unable to refuse the physician's suggestion (P = 0.031; OR = 1.8; 95% CI: [1.1-3.2]) [16]
Satisfaction with receiving information during consultation with physician Satisfaction with communication processes (P < 0.001; or = 3.1; 95% CI: [1.5-7.8]) [16], satisfaction with the physician's explanations (P < 0.001; OR = 9.33; 95% CI: [4.04-21.55]) [18]
Receiving information regarding financial conflicts of interest 61-72% (n = 614-724) wish to receive information about financial conflicts of interest [13]. 61-84% (n = 614-845) would participate in a medication study in spite of financial conflicts of interest [13]
Adequate medical expert knowledge or qualification of the physician Clinician expertise and qualifications (P = 0.012; OR = 4.9; 95% CI: [1.41-17.04]) [12]