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Table 3 TICS scale properties for different age cohorts and for gender

From: Factor structure and psychometric properties of the trier inventory for chronic stress (TICS) in a representative german sample

Scale Items Range a Reliabilities Skewness Kurtosis M (SD)
    Cronbach's α Split-half b ISC range    Total sample 14-44 years 45-64 years 65-99 years Women Men
         N = 2,339 N = 1,087 N = 746 N = 506 N = 1,231 N = 1,108
Work Overload 8 0-31(0-32) .88 .87 .52-.74 .24*** -.48*** 9.8
(6.22)
11.4***
(5.85)
9.8***
(6.11)
6.4
(5.74)
10.0
(6.28)
9.6
(6.16)
Social Overload 6 0-24(0-24) .86 .87 .57-.69 .27*** -.48*** 7.5
(4.97)
8.4**
(4.82)
7.6***
(4.78)
5.2
(4.89)
7.8**
(5.10)
7.1
(4.81)
Pressure to Perform 9 0-35(0-36) .90 .90 .58-.72 .09 -.53*** 12.3
(7.10)
14.2***
(6.65)
12.1***
(6.89)
8.5
(6.78)
11.9**
(7.07)
12.7
(7.11)
Work Discontent 8 0-32(0-32) .85 .85 .53-.66 .25*** -.30** 9.7
(5.55)
10.3
(5.49)
9.7***
(5.55)
8.1
(5.35)
9.6
(5.58)
9.7
(5.51)
Excessive Demands at Work 6 0-24(0-24) .87 .87 .61-.71 .63*** -.06 5.6
(4.28)
5.9
(4.29)
5.5
(4.13)
5.1
(4.43)
5.7
(4.30)
5.5
(4.26)
Lack of Social Recognition 4 0-16(0-16) .81 .82 .58-.67 .42*** -.39*** 4.5
(3.21)
5.0**
(3.19)
4.6***
(3.10)
3.3
(3.10)
4.5
(3.22)
4.5
(3.20)
Social Tensions 6 0-24(0-24) .88 .88 .65-.73 .56*** -.11 6.1
(4.55)
6.8**
(4.41)
6.1***
(4.48)
4.7
(4.63)
6.0
(4.54)
6.2
(4.56)
Social Isolation 6 0-24(0-24) .82 .81 .56-.71 .59*** -.07 4.6
(3.41)
6.9
(4.84)
7.3
(4.98)
7.3
(5.43)
7.5***
(5.14)
6.7
(4.84)
Chronic Worrying 4 0-16(0-16) .83 .84 .58-.71 .53*** -.06 4.8
(3.34)
4.9
(3.35)
4.9*
(3.32)
4.4
(3.34)
5.0***
(3.39)
4.5
(3.27)
Chronic Stress Screening Scale 12 0-46(0-48) .91 .88 .55-.71 .33*** -.48*** 13.3
(8.34)
14.4*
(8.31)
13.4***
(8.08)
11.0
(8.34)
13.7*
(8.46)
12.9
(8.18)
  1. a theoretical range in brackets. b Split-half reliabilities adjusted after Spearman-Brown. ISC range = range of Item-scale correlations. Significances (tests of univariate non-normality, ANOVAs for age groups and gender): * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001, significances to the next-older age group are presented. For age groups, Tukey-HSD post-hoc tests are reported