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Table 3 Falls and proportion of injurious falls as reported in the RCTs

From: Definitions and methods of measuring and reporting on injurious falls in randomised controlled fall prevention trials: a systematic review

Ref. Sample size, n All falls, n Proportion of injurious falls to all falls, % (n)
    Total Fracture Serious Moderate Healthcare use
  Definitions based only on symptoms
  Fracture definition
[40] 981 1527 4.5% (68) 2.1%(32)1
2.4%(36)2
- - -
[41] 196 460 3.6% (7) 3.6%(7)3 - - -
[42] 242 275 11.3% (31) 11.3%(31)3 - - -
[43] 2.256 5.404 4.6% (246) 4.6%(246)3 - [59.2% (3.198)]8 -
  AIS definition
[46] 384 619 23.4% (145) 2.4% (15)4
2.9%(18)5
- 18.1%(112)9 -
[47] 199 78 28.2% (22) 2.6%(2)1
2.6%(2)2
- 23.1%(18)7 -
[48] 230 89 56.2% (50) 1.1%(1)1
4.5%(4)2
14.6%(13)6 36%(32)10 -
  Other definition
[49] 597 510 63.5% (324) - - - -
[54] 186 322 39,4% (127) - - - -
[55] 597 957 48,0% (459) - - - -
[62] 360 367 8.2% (30) 1.9%(7)3 6.3% (23) - -
  Definitions based on symptoms and health care use
  FICSIT definition
[56] 288 238 24.0% (57) - 24.0% (57) - -
[59] 291 258 35.7% (92) - 12.0% (31) - 23.6%(61)11
  Campbell et al. definition
[36] 233 240 45.8% (110) - 10.4% (25) 35.4% (85) -
[60] 152 358 40.5% (145) - 9.5% (34) 31.0% (111) -
[38] 391 443 51.5% (228) - 6.8% (30) 44.7% (198) 25.5%(113)11
[37] 312 584 55.8% (326) - 3.6% (21) 52.2% (305) -
[61] 240 189 48.1% (91) - 5.8% (11) 42.3% (80) 23.3% (44)11
  Other definition
[63] 547 1299 40.3% (523) - 4.2% (54) - -
[64] 3.182 3.814 30.5% (1.163) 5.1%(193)3 - - 14.6% (558)11
2.9%(111)12
[66] 188 111 21.6% (24) - 2.7% (3) 18.9% (21) 17.1%(19)12
[67] 70 546 14.6% (80) 0.4%(2)1
3.3%(18)2
- - -
[68] 1.090 1.448 55.5% (804) - - - 8.6% (124)13
  Definitions based only on health care use
[70] 27 23 30.4% (7) - - - 30.4% (7)14
[74] 3.139 3.776 21.7% (821) - - - 21.7% (821)15
[75] 349 224 13.5% (47) - - - 9.2%(32)16
4.3%(15)17
[76] 392 820 12.2% (100) - - - 12.2%(100)12,16,17
Range: 3.6-63.5% 0.4-11.3% 2.7-24.0% 18.1-52.2% 2.9-30.4%
CV: 50.1% 51.5 18 68.0% 35.4% 46.8%
  1. Displayed are falls (number) and injurious falls (proportion = injurious falls/falls * 100; number) as reported in the RCTs. Injurious falls data are given for the following categories: total, fracture, serious, moderate, healthcare use
  2. n = number; AIS = Abbreviated Injury Scale; FICSIT = Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques. CV = Coefficient of variation [(SD/mean) × 100]) as a measure of the variability (%) of injurious falls outcomes between studies. 1Hip fracture; 2other fracture (except hip); 3fracture type not specified; 4hip or other femoral fractures; 5vertebral or wrist fracture; 6pain, injury, medical help required; 7Injuries; no fracture; 8bruise, abrasion or muscle injury without fracture, results are not included in analysis as only fractures were defined; 9superficial wounds and bruises; 10pain, minor injury, friends help needed, Bruises and no help needed; 11medical care; 12hospitalised falls; 13medical treatment; 14hospitalisation, emergency department visits or physician visits; 15medical attention; 16general practitioner surgery; 17accident and emergency department; 18total fracture incidence per study
  3. For the following reference calculation of the proportion of injurious falls is not possible as data on the number of falls and/or number of injurious falls are not available: [44, 45, 5053, 57, 58, 65, 69, 7173]. Reference [39] uses the same data as [36] and is therefore not included in the table