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Table 2 Key challenges for developing NPT based measures

From: From theory to 'measurement' in complex interventions: Methodological lessons from the development of an e-health normalisation instrument

NPT: Key assumptions Implications and challenges
Individuals’ own perceptions of a new practice are important and worth of assessment General psychological principles of measurement are relevant and useful
Assessment of individuals’ perceptions of the work involved in a new practice , rather than their own intentions or actions is required Direct implications for how questions are framed
Outcomes for measurement are likely to be more complex than those based on individual behaviour
Outcomes of interest will be specific to the kind of work required and the particular context in which it is conducted
Understanding work as ‘collaborative’ requires assessment of all groups of individuals who are affected by a new practice Sampling and recruitment of appropriate professional groups is key
Requires in-depth understanding of the different roles of constituent groups and their working contexts
Likelihood of requiring different versions of an instrument for constituent groups
As a theory of socio-technical change, change over time is a key focus of NPT Direct implications for how questions are framed, and raises possible alternatives for approaches to assessing impact or making comparison between competing practices
Timing of assessments is a key consideration