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Table 4 Sociodemographic characteristics of participants who responded to the custom research company hired at the fourth TRAILS measurement wave (T4-easy-to-recruit), participants who responded after extra recruitment effort of the TRAILS research team (T4-hard-to-recruit), participants who did not respond at the fourth wave but did participate in the third wave (non-responder T4) and of participants who had dropped out from TRAILS prior to the fourth wave (drop-out since T2 or T3)

From: Benefits of extensive recruitment effort persist during follow-ups and are consistent across age group and survey method. The TRAILS study

  T4-easy-to-recruit (ref.)    T4-hard-to-recruit    Non-responder T4    Drop-out since T2 or T3
  n(%)  n(%) OR 95% CI  n(%) OR 95% CI  n(%) OR 95% CI
T1 Socio-demographics
Girl 894 (55.5) 89 (32.8) 0.39* 0.30-0.51 49 (36.6) 0.46* 0.32-0.67 100 (46.5) 0.70* 0.52-0.93
Non-western immigrant 122 (7.6) 36 (13.3) 1.87* 1.26-2.78 29 (21.6) 3.37* 2.15-5.29 50 (23.3) 3.70* 2.56-5.33
Parents divorced 304 (18.9) 72 (26.6) 1.55* 1.16-2.09 49 (36.6) 2.48* 1.71-3.60 51 (23.7) 1.34 0.95-1.87
Single parent 30 (1.9) 6 (2.2) 1.19 0.49-2.89 6 (4.5) 2.47* 1.01-6.04 11 (5.1) 2.84* 1.40-5.75
No siblings 125 (7.9) 30 (11.2) 1.47 0.97-2.25 16 (12.1) 1.61 0.93-2.81 30 (14.9) 2.05* 1.34-3.15
Lower education mother (≤lower tracks of sec. educ.) 503 (32.0) 113 (43.0) 1.60* 1.23-2.09 82 (64.1) 3.78* 2.60-5.51 119 (60.4) 3.24* 2.39-4.39
Lower education father (≤lower tracks of sec. educ.) 395 (28.3) 84 (38.9) 1.61* 1.20-2.17 52 (50.5) 2.58* 1.72-3.86 78 (48.4) 2.38* 1.71-3.31
Low family income (<€1,135) 187 (12.8) 50 (20.2) 1.72* 1.22-2.43 43 (37.1) 4.02* 2.67-6.03 58 (31.9) 3.19* 2.25-4.51
T1 Low SEP (lowest 25%) 315 (19.8) 83 (31.0) 1.81* 1.36-2.41 73 (55.3) 5.00* 3.47-7.19 82 (40.8) 2.78* 2.05-3.78
Low IQ (wisc < 85) 221 (13.8) 61 (22.6) 1.83* 1.33-2.52 51 (38.6) 3.95* 2.70-5.76 55 (25.8) 2.18* 1.56-3.06
T4 Socio-demographics
Lower education mother (≤lower tracks of sec. educ.) 412 (29.3) 86 (40.6) 1.65* 1.22-2.21 -    -   
Lower education father (≤lower tracks of sec. educ.) 316 (25.3) 71 (39.9) 1.96* 1.41-2.71 -    -   
Low family income (<€1,150) 71 (5.6) 20 (11.0) 2.08* 1.23-3.50 -    -   
T4 Low SEP (lowest 25%) 341 (23.4) 78 (35.6) 1.82* 1.34-2.46 -    -   
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) OR 95% CI Mean (SD) OR 95% CI Mean (SD) OR 95% CI
Educational level (adjusted for age)
T2 Educational level 4.13 (1.32) 3.62 (1.28) 0.64* 0.56-0.74 3.07 (1.17) 0.42* 0.34-0.52 3.42 (1.27) 0.57* 0.48-0.68
T3 Educational level 7.11 (1.57) 6.46 (1.43) 0.61* 0.52-0.73 5.77 (1.28) 0.35* 0.28-0.44 -   
  1. *p < .05; Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from single multinomial logistic regression analyses (T1, T2 and T3 predictors) and single binary logistic regression analyses (T4 predictors); SEP = Socioeconomic Position; educational level was measured on a 0 – 10 scale, but was standardized for regression analyses; regression analyses with educational level adjusted for age; n varies between 1,874 and 2,230 (T1 socio-demographics), 1,426 and 1,617 (T4 socio-demographics), and 1,986 (T2 and T3 educational level).