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Table 1 Enumeration of 4 response types for exposure E and corresponding potential outcomes

From: A counterfactual approach to bias and effect modification in terms of response types

Etype Potential outcomes of E
E T( ω) E c ( ω)
  E 1( ω) E 0( ω)
1 1 1
2 1 0
3 a 0 1
4 0 0
  1. a Under the assumption of positive monotonicity (i.e., E 1(ω) ≥ E 0(ω) for ω), this response type is excluded.