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Table 10 Association between sponsor and clinical outcomes: Microflora

From: Association between funding source, methodological quality and research outcomes in randomized controlled trials of synbiotics, probiotics and prebiotics added to infant formula: A Systematic Review

Microflora Source of funding Positive 4* Negative 5* Neutral 6* Chi-square p value Fisher’s exact p value
n (%)$$ n (%)$$ n (%)$$
Bifidobacteria N = 31 Industry 12 (38.7)   6 (19.4) 0.416 0.583
None/Not clear 8 (25.8)   2 (6.5)   
Non industry 3 (9.7)     
Lactobacillus N = 19 Industry 2 (10.5)   6 (31.6) 0.155 0.176
None/Not clear 4 (21.1)   5 (26.3)   
Non industry 2 (10.5)   0   
Pathogens N = 25 Industry 2 (8.0)   11 (44.0) 0.532 0.612
None/Not clear 3 (12.0) 1 (4.0) 6 (24.0)   
  Non industry    2 (8.0)   
  1. $$ Overall percentage.
  2. *Positive: synbiotic, probiotic or prebiotic supplementation had a statistically significant effect, p < 0.05. There were significant differences between study groups (in favour of experimental group).
  3. *Neutral: synbiotic, probiotic or prebiotic supplementation did not have a statistically significant effect, p > 0.05, No significant differences between study groups.
  4. *Negative: synbiotic, probiotic or prebiotic supplementation had a statistically significant increase in an adverse event / negative outcome, p < 0.05.