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Table 6 Association between Sponsor and methodological quality (risk of bias)

From: Association between funding source, methodological quality and research outcomes in randomized controlled trials of synbiotics, probiotics and prebiotics added to infant formula: A Systematic Review

Methodological quality Source of funding Yes (Low risk) No (High risk) Unclear Chi-square p value Fisher’s exact p value
N = 67 studies n (%)$$ n (%)$$ n (%)$$
Sequence generation Industry 26 (38.8)   14 (20.9) 0.435 0.465
  None/Not clear 8 (11.9)   8 (11.9)   
  Non industry 8 (11.9)   3 (4.5)   
Allocation concealment Industry 21 (31.3)   19 (28.4) 0.315 0.338
  None/Not clear 5 (7.5)   11 (16.4)   
  Non Iindustry 6 (9.0)   5 (7.5)   
Blinding Industry 18 (26.9)   22 (32.8) 0.395 0.457
  None/Not clear 6 (9.0)   10 (14.9)   
  Non industry 7 (10.4)   4 (6.0)   
Incomplete outcome data Industry 36 (53.7) 1 (1.5) 3 (4.5) 0.023* 0.005*
  None/Not clear 9 (13.4)   7 (10.4)   
  Non industry 7 (10.4)   4 (6.0)   
Selective reporting Industry 36 (53.7) 2 (3.0) 2 (3.0) 0.224 0.188
  None/Not clear 11 (16.4) 4 (6.0) 1 (1.5)   
  Non industry 10 (14.9) 1 (1.5) 0   
Free of other bias Industry 35 (52.2)   5 (7.5) 0.033* 0.038*
  None/Not clear 9 (13.4)   7 (10.4)   
  Non industry 8 (13.4) 1 (1.5) 2 (3.0)   
  1. *Significant p < 0.05.
  2. $$Overall percentage.