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Table 9 Association between sponsor and clinical outcomes: stool characteristics

From: Association between funding source, methodological quality and research outcomes in randomized controlled trials of synbiotics, probiotics and prebiotics added to infant formula: A Systematic Review

Stool characteristics Source of funding Positive* Negative* Neutral* Chi-square p value Fisher’s exact p value
n (%)$$ n (%)$$ n (%)$$
Stool Frequency N = 37 Industry 7 (18.9)   22 (59.5) 0.501 0.540
None/Not clear 3 (8.1)   4 (10.8)   
Non industry    1 (2.7)   
Stool Consistency n =37 Industry 14 (37.8)   15 (40.5) 0.562 1.00
None/Not clear 4 (10.8)   3 (8.1)   
Non industry    1 (2.7)   
Stool pH N =13 Industry 7 (53.8)   2 (15.4) 0.305 1.00
None/Not clear 4 (30.8)     
Non industry      
Stool Short Chain Fatty Acids N = 9 Industry 2 (22.2)   4 (44.4) 0.687 1.00
None / Not clear 1 (11.1)   1 (11.1)   
Non industry    1 (11.1)   
Flatulence / Gas N = 16 Industry    15 (93.8) Not valid  
None/Not clear    1 (6.3)   
Non industry    0   
Diarrhoea, Diarrhoea episodes N = 19 Industry 3 (15.8) 1 (5.3) 10 (52.6) 0.771 1.00
None/Not clear    2 (10.5)   
Non industry    3 (15.8)   
Constipation N = 3 Industry 1 (33.3)   1 (33.3) 0.386 1.00
None/Not clear    1 (33.3)   
  Non industry    0   
  1. $$Overall percentage.
  2. *Positive: synbiotic, probiotic or prebiotic supplementation had a statistically significant effect, p < 0.05. There were significant differences between study groups (in favour of experimental group).
  3. *Neutral: synbiotic, probiotic or prebiotic supplementation did not have a statistically significant effect, p > 0.05, No significant differences between study groups.
  4. *Negative: synbiotic, probiotic or prebiotic supplementation had a statistically significant increase in an adverse event / negative outcome, p < 0.05.