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Table 2 Descriptive characteristics by gender for the EAGLE study

From: A regression model for risk difference estimation in population-based case–control studies clarifies gender differences in lung cancer risk of smokers and never smokers

        Lung cancer cases (n=1,943) Controls (n=2,116)
  Male (n=1,537) Female (n=406) Male (n=1,617) Female (n=499)
Age     
 35-59 301 (20) 123 (30) 371 (23) 172 (34)
 60-66 428 (28) 91 (23) 469 (29) 104 (21)
 67-71 362 (24) 77 (19) 366 (23) 94 (19)
 72+ 446 (28) 115 (28) 411 (25) 129 (26)
P-value   <0.001   <0.001
Education     
 None 91 (6) 21 (5) 66 (4) 24 (5)
 Elementary 625 (40) 128 (32) 431 (27) 143 (29)
 Middle school 424 (28) 134 (33) 456 (28) 158 (31)
 High school  or more 397 (26) 123 (30) 664 (41) 174 (35)
P-value   0.005   0.0975
Ever had list A/B job    
 Yes 522 (34) 27 (7) 447 (28) 28 (6)
 No 1,015 (66) 379 (93) 1,170 (72) 471 (94)
P-value   <0.001   <0.001
ETS at the workplace    
 Yes 1,180 (70) 215 (54) 1,127 (70) 270 (54)
 No 357 (30) 191 (46) 490 (30) 229 (46)
P-value   <0.001   <0.001
Smoking variables     
 Ever smoked cigars, pipes, or cigarillos
  Yes 267 (17) 5 (1) 309 (19) 2 (0)
  No 1,270 (83) 401 (99) 1,308 (81) 497 (100)
  P-value   <0.001   <0.001
 Smoking status    
  Never smoker 29 (2) 103 (25) 397 (25) 282 (57)
  Former 723 (47) 116 (29) 800 (49) 110 (22)
  Current 785 (51) 187 (46) 420 (26) 107 (21)
  P-value   <0.001   <0.001
 Pack-years (Smokers only)
  <5 38 (3) 31 (10) 265 (22) 97 (45)
  5-19 82 (5) 56 (18) 199 (16) 50 (23)
  20-39 421 (28) 124 (41) 413 (34) 49 (22)
  40+ 967 (64) 92 (31) 343 (28) 21 (10)
  P-value   <0.001   <0.001
 Years since quitting (Quitters only)
  <10 337 (52) 60 (47) 158 (20) 28 (25)
  10+ 386 (48) 56 (53) 642 (80) 82 (75)
  P-value   0.3557   0.2059
 Avg. percent inhaled (Smokers only)
  25 1 (0) 5 (2) 3 (0) 1 (0)
  50 62 (4) 17 (6) 36 (3) 11 (5)
  75 449 (30) 113 (37) 295 (24) 53 (24)
  100 995 (66) 168 (55) 886 (73) 152 (70)
  P-value   <0.001   0.3905
  1. ETS = Environmental tobacco smoke.
  2. P-values are based on a chi-squared test of gender differences by case status.