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Table 4 Effect of active intervention features and patient characteristics on changes in HbA1c, LDL and SBP over baseline and associated changes in between-group(τ 2 ) and within-group(σ 2 ) variance in effects

From: Advancing current approaches to disease management evaluation: capitalizing on heterogeneity to understand what works and for whom

  HbA1c LDL SBP
  N Mean difference [95% CI] RC N Mean difference [95% CI] RC N Mean difference [95% CI] RC
Active intervention features
Measurement frequency -    -*    -*
 ≤Median 27,322 0.09 [−0.85, 1.03]   25,420 −0.08* [−0.12, -0.05]   21,764 −0.99* [−1.57, -0.41]  
 >Median 20,913 −0.06 [−1.47, 1.36]   10,782 −0.20* [−0.26, -0.15]   25,824 −1.01* [−1.38, -0.64]  
Measurement range -*    -    +*
 <8 outcomes 15,641 0.13 [−1.08, 1.34]   6500 −0.10* [−0.15, -0.05]   14,397 −1.60* [−2.02, -1.17]  
 8 outcomes 51,820 0.05 [−0.66, 0.75]   45,301 −0.10* [−0.14, -0.06]   50,392 −0.79* [−1.15, -0.43]  
Length of follow-up +*    +*    +*
 ≤1 year 57,069 0.02 [−0.77, 0.81]   43,901 −0.09* [−0.13, -0.05]   55,686 −1.27* [−1.60, -0.95]  
 >1 year 18,058 0.53 [−0.22, 1.27]   14,796 −0.11* [−0.15, -0.06]   17,751 −0.04 [−0.52, 0.44]  
Change in τ 2   26.0%    −37.0%    15.6%  
Change in σ 2   −0.1%    0.7%    5.2%  
Patient characteristics
Age    -*    +*    +*
 ≤59 20,538 0.21 [−0.56, 0.98]   15,857 −0.12* [−0.16, -0.07]   20,139 −0.57* [−0.92, -0.23]  
 60-69 24,204 0.23 [−0.55, 1.02]   19,364 −0.09* [−0.13, -0.05]   23,689 −1.00* [−1.38, -0.62]  
 ≥70 30,382 0.03 [−0.78, 0.83]   23,474 −0.08* [−0.12, -0.03]   29,605 −1.34* [−1.72, -0.96]  
Disease duration    +*    -    +
 ≤2 21,261 -0.12 [−1.12, 0.88]   16,756 −0.14* [−0.19, -0.08]   21,673 −1.04* [−1.47, -0.62]  
 3-5 13,342 0.11 [−0.76, 0.98]   10,607 −0.08* [−0.12, -0.03]   13,117 −0.55* [−0.97, -0.13]  
 ≥6 20,474 −0.07 [−1.08, 0.95]   15,857 −0.06* [−0.10, -0.01]   19,645 −1.22* [−1.61, -0.84]  
Baseline health    -*    -*    -*
 Good 51,545 1.79* [1.17, 2.41]   29,311 0.15* [0.12, 0.18]   42,784 4.59 [4.21, 4.97]  
 Moderate 21,637 −2.62* [−3.46, -1.78]   19,984 −0.17* [−0.20, -0.14]     
 Poor 1945 −16.82* [−18.7,-15.0]   9402 −0.72* [−0.77, -0.67]   30,653 −8.91 [−9.67, -8.16]  
Diabetes complications +*    -*    -*
 No 53,065 0.04 [−0.63, 0.71]   39,721 −0.10* [−0.14, -0.06]   50,780 −0.93* [−1.29, -0.58]  
 Yes 10,183 −0.06 [−0.76, 0.65]   7994 −0.08* [−0.15, -0.01]   9788 −1.25* [−1.75, -0.75]  
Smoking status    +*    -    -
 No/previously 46,277 0.23 [−0.28, 0.73]   38,294 −0.09* [−0.13, -0.04]   46,908 −0.90* [−1.24, -0.56]  
 Yes 10,375 0.20 [−0.85, 1.25]   7762 −0.11* [−0.15, -0.06]   10,504 −1.07* [−1.54, -0.59]  
Change in τ 2   −12.5%    −33.9%    74.8%  
Change in σ 2   −23.5%    −21.7%    −29.9%  
  1. NOTE: N indicates number of patients, CI, confidence interval, RC, regression coefficient, +, positive regression slope, -, negative regression slope, *statistically significant (p < 0.05), baseline health status is defined according to the target values of the national diabetes care standard: Good (HbA1c ≤ 53 mmol/mol, LDL < 2.5 mmol/l, SBP ≤ 140 mmHg), Moderate (HbA1c 54-74 mmol/mol, LDL 2.5-3.5 mmol/l), Poor (HbA1c ≥ 75 mmol/mol, LDL > 3.5 mmol/l, SBP > 140 mmHg).