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Table 1 Areas of application and the functional data analysis (FDA) features used in the 84 peer-review papers reporting application of FDA

From: Applications of functional data analysis: A systematic review

Year Field of study Outcome of interest FDA features Reference
Smoothing Data reduction Clustering FLM Forecasting
2010 Biomechanics Walking velocity on force platform - - - FRM - [36]
Biomechanics Kinematic gait data Polynomial spline FPCA - - - [37]
Biomedicine Diffusion tensor imaging fiber images Kernel - - FRM - [38]
Biomedicine Gene expression microarray data Local polynomial FPCA FEM - - [39]
Biomedicine Spinal cord dorsal horn neurons Locally weighted regression (LOESS) - K-Means - - [40]
Demography Age-specific mortality rates Kernel FPCA - - - [41]
Environment Gas emissions Kernel - - - - [42]
Geophysics Magnetometer Kernel FPCA - FRM - [43]
Medicine Human growth - FPCA - - - [44]
Medicine Age-specific breast cancer mortality rates Penalized regression spline FPCA - - State space model [45]
Medicine Age-specific fall injury incidence rates Penalized regression spline FPCA - - State space model [23]
Medicine Human vision Wavelet - - FANOVA - [46]
2009 Biology Temporal fertility trajectories of medfly - FPCA - FMANOVA - [47]
Biomechanics Kinematic gait data - - - FRM - [48]
Biomedicine 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging data - FPCA - - - [49]
Biomedicine Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis data B-spline FPCA HCA - - [50]
Biomedicine microRNA transfection time-series microarray expression images B-spline FPCA - - - [51]
Biomedicine Paediatric diffusion tensor imaging images B-spline FPCA - - - [52]
Biomedicine Positron emission tomography time course data Local polynomial FPCA - - - [53]
Meteorology Clickstream web data (Hurricane Katrina) B-spline - - FANOVA - [54]
2008 Biomechanics Ankle dorsiflexion, knee flexion, Achilles tendon, calcaneal and leg abduction angles Roughness penalty FPCA - - - [55]
Biomedicine Colon carcinogenesis experiments Regression splines FPCA - - - [56]
Biomedicine Diffusion tensor imaging fiber images B-spline FPCA - - - [52]
Biomedicine Temporal gene expression profiles for the Drosophila life cycle Smoothing spline FPCA - FRM - [57]
Biomedicine Time-course gene expression data B-spline - SVM - - [58]
Biomedicine Time-course gene expression data B-spline FPCA LDA, QDA KNN, SVM - - [59]
Demography Mortality, fertility and migration rates Weighted penalized regression spline FPCA - - State space model [60]
Ecology Plankton monitoring data Roughness penalty FPCA - - - [61]
Environment Diurnal ozone and NOx cycles for transportation emission control Fourier FPCA HCA - - [62]
Finance Cash flow and transactions Wavelet FPCA - - FAR [63]
Finance Price formation and online auctions Polynomial spline - - FRM - [64]
Linguistics Speech production variability in fricatives of children and adults B-spline FPCA - - - [65]
Meteorology Plasma biomarkers Kernel - - FRM - [66]
Psychology Emotional responses of musical listeners Cubic B-spline - - FANOVA - [67]
2007 Biology Time-course gene expression yeast cell cycle B-spline FPCA MBC - - [68]
Biomedicine MRI images B-spline - - - - [69]
Demography Mortality and fertility rate Penalized regression spline FPCA - - State space model [25]
Engineering Radar waveforms Kernel - HCA - - [70]
Environment Diurnal ozone/NOx cycles and transportation emissions Fourier - - FANOVA - [71]
Environment Stratospheric ozone levels Cubic spline FPCA - - - [72]
Medicine Age-specific breast cancer mortality rates Weighted local quadratic FPCA - - State space model [24]
Medicine Women urinary hormone profiles at midlife Cubic spline FPCA - - - [73]
Medicine Haemoglobin levels in renal anaemia B-spline - - - - [74]
Neurology Joint coordination data in motor development B-spline FPCA - - - [75]
2006 Biology Time-course gene expression yeast cell cycle B-spline FPCA FLR - - [76]
Behavioural Male medfly calling behaviour - FPCA - - - [77]
Biomechanics Kinematic gait data (knee flexion angle) Cubic B-spline FPCA LDA - - [78]
Biomechanics Knee joint kinematics in the vertical jump B-spline FPCA - - - [79]
Biomechanics Kinematic gait data (sit to stand movements) B-spline - - - - [80]
Ecology Water quality trend data (nutrient and sediment) Fourier FPCA HCA FRM - [81]
IT Software complexity measure Smoothing spline - - - - [82]
Linguistics Tongue tip velocity B-spline - - - - [83]
Physiology Blood lactate for running speed on a treadmill Polynomial spline FPCA - - - [84]
Psychology Tension judgement in music B-spline - - - - [85]
2005 Biology Protein expression profiles P-spline FPCA HCA - - [86]
Biomechanics Joint angles describing the limb motion Regression spline FPCA - - - [87]
Biomedicine Functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 1.5-Tesla Magnetom vision B-spline FPCA - - - [88]
Biomedicine Functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 3.0 T Allegra system- B-spline FPCA - - - [89]
Ecology Smith McIntyre grab species - FPCA HCA - - [90]
Education Trends in Mathematics and Science Achievement (TIMSS) score Nonparametric spline FPCA CART,KNN - - [91]
Finance Cash flows in point of sale and ATM networks Fourier - - FANOVA - [92]
Linguistics Speech movement records Wavelets - - - - [93]
Psychology Tension judgement in music B-spline - - - - [94]
2004 Chemistry Molecular weight distributions B-spline - - FRM - [95]
  Medicine Esophageal bolus flow - - - - - [96]
  Meteorology Biomarkers Cubic spline FPCA - - - [97]
  Neurology Automated atlas-based head size normalization - - - - - [98]
  Psychology Musical emotions and tension B-spline - - - - [99]
2003 Biomechanics Digitized images of hand drawing curves generated by subjects treated with various facial preparation Fourier FPCA - FANOVA - [100]
Biomedicine Longitudinal plasma folate data Weighted local polynomial spline FPCA - - - [101]
2002 Agriculture Lodging score for rice fields based on a digital overhead image Fourier - - FRM - [102]
Biomedicine Myocardial contractile function images Cubic B-spline FPCA - - - [103]
Economics Monthly nondurable goods production index B-spline - - - - [104]
Medicine Foetal heart rate data Fourier - - FRM - [18]
Medicine Foetal heart rate data Fourier - - FLRM - [19]
2001 Satellite Radar electromagnetic signals Kernel FPCA -   - [105]
2000 Biomechanics Handwriting in Chinese B-spline FPCA EDO - - [14]
Linguistics Harmonics-to-noise ratio of voice signals B-spline - - - - [106]
Meteorology Annual cycle of sea surface temperatures Polynomial spline - - - FAR [107]
1999 Linguistics Harmonics-to-noise ratio of voice signals - - - - - [108]
1998 Ecology Abundance of the gray-sided vole Clethrionomys rufocanus Log-spline FPCA - - - [109]
1996 Linguistics Vocal tract lip motion during speech Smoothing spline FPCA - FANOVA - [110]
1995 Biomechanics Records of the force exerted by pinching a force meter with the tips of the thumb and forefinger an opposite sides - FPCA - - - [111]
  Economics Income distribution - FPCA - - - [112]
  1. FPCA - Functional principal component analysis; FEM - Functional embedding; HCA - Hierarchical cluster analysis; SVM - Support vector machine; LDA- Linear discriminant analysis; QDA - Quadratic discriminant analysis; KNN- K-nearest neighbours; MBC - Model based clustering; CART - Classification and regression tree; EDO - Estimated differential operators; FLM - Functional linear model; FRM - Functional linear regression model; FANOVA - Functional ANOVA; FMANOVA - Functional MANOVA; FFT - Functional F test; FLRM - Functional logistic regression model; FAR - Functional auto regressive model.