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Table 1 Selected characteristics of 554 African American community and RDD controls participating in the Women’s Circle of Health Study, New Jersey, 2006-2012

From: Rethinking sources of representative controls for the conduct of case–control studies in minority populations

  Community (n=347) RDD (n=207)  
  n % n % P value1
Age at interview (years)      0.32
   <30 7 2.0 5 2.4  
   30-39 62 17.9 44 21.3  
   40-49 110 31.7 66 31.9  
   50-59 103 29.7 67 32.4  
   60+ 65 18.7 25 12.1  
Country of origin      0.04
   United States 312 89.9 174 84.1  
   Caribbean countries 28 8.1 21 10.1  
   Other 7 2.0 12 5.8  
Marital status      <0.05
   Married or living as married 107 30.9 99 47.8  
   Widowed 29 8.4 8 3.9  
   Separated, divorced, or no longer living as married 63 18.2 38 18.4  
   Single, never married or never lived as married 147 42.5 62 30.0  
Highest grade of school completed      <0.05
   Less than 12th grade 60 17.3 17 8.2  
   High school graduate or equivalent 96 27.7 56 27.1  
   Some college 98 28.2 54 26.1  
   College graduate 57 16.4 53 25.6  
   Post-graduate degree 36 10.4 27 13.0  
Health insurance (multiple choices possible)      
   Medicaid 90 25.9 34 16.4 <0.05
   Medicare 55 15.9 16 7.7 <0.05
   Employer-provided insurance 167 48.1 133 64.3 <0.05
   Pay for insurance out of pocket 11 3.2 6 2.9 0.86
   I do not have health insurance 26 7.5 10 4.8 0.22
   Other 36 10.4 20 9.7 0.79
Annual income      <0.05
   Less than $15,000 89 26.5 25 12.9  
   $15,000-19,999 25 7.4 14 7.2  
   $20,000-24,999 26 7.7 9 4.6  
   $25,000-34,999 31 9.2 19 9.8  
   $35,000-49,999 46 13.7 36 18.6  
   $50,000-69,999 44 13.1 31 16.0  
   $70,000-89,999 31 9.2 20 10.3  
   $90,000 or more 44 13.1 40 20.6  
Body Mass Index (kg/m 2 ) – Premenopausal      <0.05
   < 25 37 19.3 33 27.7  
   25 – 29 51 26.6 39 32.8  
   30+ 104 54.2 47 39.5  
Body Mass Index (kg/m 2 ) – Postmenopausal      0.21
   < 25 15 9.7 14 15.9  
   25-29 43 27.7 28 31.8  
   30+ 97 62.6 46 52.3  
Age at menarche (years)      0.38
   <11 36 10.4 27 13.0  
   11-12 61 17.6 30 14.5  
   12-13 97 28.0 48 23.2  
   13-14 69 19.9 41 19.8  
   14 + 83 24.0 61 29.5  
Parity (live births)      <0.01
   0 47 13.5 31 15  
   1-2 162 46.7 122 58.9  
   3-4 101 29.1 48 23.2  
   ≥5 37 10.7 6 2.9  
Age at first birth (years)      <0.05
   ≤ 19 138 46.2 61 34.7  
   20-24 83 27.8 49 27.8  
   25-30 42 14.1 32 18.2  
   ≥31 36 12 34 19.3  
Breastfeeding      <0.05
   Nulliparous 47 13.5 31 15.0  
   No 180 51.9 84 40.6  
   Yes 120 34.6 92 44.4  
Age at menopause (years)      0.63
   Premenopausal 192 55.7 119 57.5  
   ≤ 44 25 7.2 12 5.8  
   45-49 45 13.0 21 10.1  
   50 + 83 24.1 55 26.6  
Ever have hormone replacement therapy? 2      0.30
   Yes 25 16.2 19 21.6  
   No 129 83.8 69 78.4  
Ever have a screening mammogram? 3      0.27
   Yes 252 90.6 148 93.7  
   No 26 9.4 10 6.3  
History of benign breast disease      0.99
   Yes 77 22.2 46 22.2  
   No 270 77.8 161 77.8  
Family history of breast cancer?      0.20
   Yes 39 11.2 31 15.0  
   No 308 88.8 176 85.0  
  1. 1 Based on Chi-square test comparing community controls vs. RDD controls.
  2. 2 Limited to postmenopausal participants.
  3. 3 Limited to participants ≥ 40 years of age.