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Table 1 Risk of bias criteria

From: Risk of bias of randomized controlled trials published in orthopaedic journals

1. Was the randomization method to groups appropriate?
2. Was the allocation sequence concealed from those assigning patients to groups?
3. Were the participants blind to the intervention?
4. Were the outcome assessors (for the primary outcome) blind to the intervention?
5. Was the outcome measurement performed in the same manner with similar intensity in the groups being compared?
6. Were similarly trained individuals administering the intervention across groups?
7. Were all the withdrawals described?
8. Were all originally randomized participants analyzed in the groups they were assigned to (i.e., an intention-to-treat analysis)?
9. Was clustering at the group level accounted for in the analyses?
10. Were the groups similar at baseline?