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Table 3 Sub-group analysis of item responses by anatomical region (article n = 240)

From: Risk of bias of randomized controlled trials published in orthopaedic journals

Randomization Yes (%) No (%) Not reported (%)
Spine& Neck 14(60.9) 0(0) 9(39.1)
Upper Extremity 32(78.1) 3(7.3) 6(14.6)
Lower Extremity 112(67.9) 14(8.5) 39(23.6)
Mixed 7(70.0) 0(0) 3(30.0)
Allocation concealment
Spine& Neck 14(60.9) 0(0) 9(39.1)
Upper Extremity 32(78.1) 3 (7.3) 6(14.6)
Lower Extremity 111(67.3) 12(7.3) 42(25.5)
Mixed 7(70.0) 0(0) 3(30.0)
Blinding of Participants
Spine& Neck 6(26.1) 7(30.4) 10(43.5)
Upper Extremity 6(14.6) 8(19.5) 27(65.9)
Lower Extremity 35(21.2) 34(20.6) 96(58.2)
Mixed 2(20.0) 2(20.0) 6(60.0)
Blinding of Outcome Assessors
Spine& Neck 11(47.8) 3(13.0) 9(39.1)
Upper Extremity 18(43.9) 10(24.4) 13(31.7)
Lower Extremity 82(49.7) 24(14.6) 59(35.8)
Mixed 7(70.0) 1(10.0) 2(20.0)
Outcome Measurement
Spine& Neck 21(91.3) 0(0) 2(8.7)
Upper Extremity 39(95.1) 0(0) 2(4.9)
Lower Extremity 156(94.6) 2(1.2) 7(4.2)
Mixed 9(90.0) 0(0) 1(10.0)
Similarly Trained Individuals
Spine& Neck 5(21.7) 0(0) 18(78.3)
Upper Extremity 24(58.5) 1(2.4) 16(39.0)
Lower Extremity 81(49.1) 2(1.2) 82(49.7)
Mixed 3(30.0) 0(0) 7(70.0)
Compliance with Intervention
Spine& Neck 13(56.5) 10(43.5) 0(0)
Upper Extremity 29(70.7) 12(29.3) 0(0)
Lower Extremity 119(72.1) 45(27.3) 1(0.6)
Mixed 5(50.0) 5(50.0) 0(0)
Intent to Treat Analysis
Spine& Neck 9(39.1) 1(4.4) 13(56.5)
Upper Extremity 20(48.8) 1(2.4) 20(48.8)
Lower Extremity 70(42.4) 2(1.2) 93(56.4)
Mixed 4(40.0) 0(0) 6(60.0)
Clustering
Spine& Neck 0(0) 0(0) 23(100)
Upper Extremity 0(0) 0(0) 41(100)
Lower Extremity 1(0.6) 0(0) 164(99.4)
Mixed 0(0) 0(0) 10(100)
Similar at Baseline
Spine& Neck 17(73.9) 1(4.4) 5(21.7)
Upper Extremity 30(73.2) 0(0) 11(26.8)
Lower Extremity 117(70.9) 16(9.7) 32(19.4)
Mixed 4(40.0) 3(30.0) 3(30.0)