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Table 5 Sub-group analysis of item responses by Geographic Location

From: Risk of bias of randomized controlled trials published in orthopaedic journals

Randomization Y N DK
Asia 11(64.7) 4(23.5) 2(11.8)
Europe 78(75.0) 6(5.8) 20(19.2)
N. America 66(62.9) 7(6.7) 32(30.5)
Oceana 9(81.8) 0(0) 2(18.2)
Mixed 1(50.0) 0(0) 1(50.0)
Allocation Concealment
Asia 11(64.7) 4(23.5) 2(11.8)
Europe 78(75.0) 4(3.9) 22(21.2)
N. America 66(62.9) 7(6.7) 32(30.5)
Oceana 8(72.7) 0(0) 3(27.3)
Mixed 1(50.0) 0(0) 1(50.0)
Blinding of Participants
Asia 2(11.8) 0(0) 15(88.2)
Europe 21(20.2) 24(23.1) 59(56.7)
N. America 23(21.9) 24(22.9) 58(55.2)
Oceana 2(18.2) 3(27.3) 6(54.6)
Mixed 1(50.0) 0(0) 1(50.0)
Blinding of Assessors
Asia 9(52.9) 2(11.8) 6(35.3)
Europe 51(49.0) 22(21.2) 31(29.8)
N. America 51(48.6) 13(12.4) 41(39.1)
Oceana 6(54.6) 1(9.1) 4(36.4)
Mixed 1(50.0) 0(0) 1(50.0)
Outcome Measurement
Asia 15(88.2) 1(5.9) 1(5.9)
Europe 99(95.2) 0(0) 5(4.8)
N. America 99(94.3) 1(1.0) 5(4.8)
Oceana 10(90.0) 0(0) 1(9.1)
Mixed 2(100) 0(0) 0(0)
Similarly Trained Individuals
Asia 10(58.8) 0(0) 7(41.2)
Europe 54(51.9) 1(1.0) 49(47.1)
N. America 46(43.8) 2(1.9) 57(54.3)
Oceana 3(27.3) 0(0) 8(72.7)
Mixed 0(0) 0(0) 2(100)
Compliance with Intervention
Asia 11(64.7) 5(29.4) 1(5.9)
Europe 76(73.1) 28(26.9) 0(0)
N. America 69(65.7) 36(34.3) 0(0)
Oceana 9(81.8) 2(18.2) 0(0)
Mixed 1(50.0) 1(50.0) 0(0)
Intent to Treat Analysis
Asia 6(6.1) 0(0) 11(64.7)
Europe 47(45.2) 1(1.0) 56(53.9)
N. America 43(41.0) 3(2.9) 59(56.2)
Oceana 5(45.5) 0(0) 6(54.6)
Mixed 2(100) 0(0) 0(0)
Clustering
Asia 0(0) 0(0) 17(100)
Europe 0(0) 0(0) 104(100)
N. America 1(1.0) 0(0) 104(99.1)
Oceana 0(0) 0(0) 11(100)
Mixed 0(0) 0(0) 2(100)
Similar at Baseline
Asia 13(76.5) 1(5.9) 3(17.7)
Europe 67(64.4) 8(7.7) 29(27.9)
N. America 79(75.2) 9(8.6) 17(16.2)
Oceana 7(63.6) 2(18.2) 2(18.2)
Mixed 2(100) 0(0) 0(0)