“Antler” plot for the logistic regression model. Fifteen simulated biomarkers are assumed to follow a pair of normal distributions for the two classes. At each training sample size, the AUC performance is estimated in one Monte Carlo (MC) trial with (#1) resubstitution, (#2) a small independent test set (60 observations per class), and (#3) a large independent test set (10,000 observations per class). The MC trial is repeated independently 1,000 times and the sample mean and the sample standard deviation (SD) of the estimated AUC values are calculated for each estimator. The figure plots the theoretically ideal AUC and the sample mean AUC (±1 SD) at training sample sizes 60, 120, 240, 360, and 480 (note that the plot is shifted a bit horizontally to avoid overlap between error bars).