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Table 2 Apparent and optimism-corrected MSE values based on the four approaches (“Appr 1”, “Appr 2”, “Appr 3” and “Appr 4”) of handling multiply imputed data sets, and the shrinkage factor ( β ̄ L P )

From: Validation of prediction models based on lasso regression with multiply imputed data

MSE0= 2.4183   Averaged best model 0.9047   Averaged 3% tolerance 0.9672
Apparent MSE X Appr 1 Appr 2 Appr 3 Appr 4 Appr 1 Appr 2 Appr 3 App 4
Optimism -0.1162 -0.0127 -0.0988 -0.1452 -0.0656 -0.0081 -0.0537 -0.0781
Optimism corrected MSE X 1.0209 0.9174 1.0035 1.0499 1.0328 0.9753 1.0209 1.0453
β ̄ L P 1.0443 1.0552 1.0361 1.0498 1.1368 1.1257 1.1136 1.1297
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