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Table 2 Coding scheme

From: Methodological and ethical issues in research using social media: a metamethod of Human Papillomavirus vaccine studies

Article author/title Guiding questions
Research question 1. Is the research question/problem clearly stated?
2. Is the research question meaningful, significant, and worthy of investigation?
Study aim/purpose 3. Is the study aim/purpose clearly stated?
4. Does the literature review provide sufficient context and background to justify the study?
5. Are the concepts central to the research question clearly defined?
Design type 6. Is the methodological approach clearly stated?
7. What methodology guides the design?
8. Are the methodological assumptions underpinning the study clearly stated?
9. Is there a fit between the methodological approach and the research question?
Data source 10. What is the data source?
11. Is the data source appropriate for the research question?
Method 12. Is the data collection method clearly described?
13. Is the data collection method appropriate for the research question?
14. Is the sample size clearly stated?
15. Is recruitment clearly described?
16. Is the data collection method consistent with the methodological approach?
Data analysis 17. Is the approach to data analysis clearly stated?
18. Is the method of data analysis consistent with the methodological approach?
Rigor 19. Evidence of credibility/internal validity: e.g., member checking; triangulation; prolonged engagement
20. Evidence of transferability/external validity: e.g., robust description of setting, participants, content and findings
21. Evidence of dependability/reliability: audit trail describing researcher(s) data, methods, analysis and decision-making
22. Evidence of confirmability/objectivity: clearly stated epistemic stance including researcher assumptions, reflectivity and audit trail
Findings 23. Are the findings clearly stated?
24. Is the interpretation of the findings well supported by the literature?
25. Are the findings/conclusions clearly linked to the data?
Ethical issues 26. Does the study follow principles of ethical research?
27. Did the study receive ethics approval?
Overall 28. Is the research design sound?