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Table 4 Summary of the results from ‘ sampling ’ studies included in the review (n = 33 studies)

From: Reaching the hard-to-reach: a systematic review of strategies for improving health and medical research with socially disadvantaged groups

Barriers Strategies
Difficult to locate or reach and access groups (e.g., homeless people living on the streets) • Snowball/social network or respondent-driven recruitment [33, 57, 60, 62, 79, 84, 102104, 116],[118, 126, 129]
Frequent change of address or self-identifying, (e.g. GLBT) results in no sampling frame. • Time-space sampling [38, 104, 113]
  • Targeted sampling [34, 79]
  • Capture-recapture [95]
  • Adaptive sampling [53]
  • Partnerships with community groups [32, 40, 44, 47, 54, 6062, 67, 74],[103, 116, 118, 122, 128]
Low prevalence in population (e.g., Aboriginal people). • Combination of various data sources as a novel methodology to avoid sampling [62, 97] or supplementing with additional data (e.g. from qualitative research) [44, 47, 54, 60, 67, 103, 113, 122],[128]
  • Statistical analysis techniques to population survey data for low-frequency samples [91]
  • Internet samples [51]