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Table 1 Tabulation of questions, respective study designs and quality appraisal tools which are relevant in the field of infectious disease epidemiology, prevention and control

From: Evidence-based decision-making in infectious diseases epidemiology, prevention and control: matching research questions to study designs and quality appraisal tools

Domain1 No. Question Study design Quality appraisal tools (Reference)2
A 1 Characteristics of the pathogen? Laboratory study Van der Worp [37]3
A 2 Subtypes, serotypes and local epidemiology of the pathogen? Laboratory study Van der Worp [37]
    Cross-sectional study Al-Jader [33], Loney [32], Hoy [45], Cho [30], NICE [47]
A 3 Modes of transmission? Animal study Van der Worp [37]
    Cohort study Downs [31], SIGN [40], Cho [30], EPHPP [38], NOS [44]
    Case series Cho [30]
    Case-control study Downs [31], SIGN [41], Cho [30], EPHPP [38], NOS [44]
B 4 Incidence of the disease? Cohort study Downs [31], SIGN [40], Cho [30], EPHPP [38], NOS [44]
B 5 Prevalence/seroprevalence of the disease? Cross-sectional study Al-Jader [33], Loney [32], Hoy [45], Cho [30], NICE [47]
B 6 Consequences or sequelae of the disease (hospitalization/mortality/complications/disabilities)? Cohort study Downs [31], SIGN [40], Cho [30], EPHPP [38], NOS [44]
Case series Cho [30]
Case report Cho [30]
B 7 Perception of the disease in the target population? Cross-sectional study Al-Jader [33], Loney [32], Hoy [45], Cho [30], NICE [47]
    Cohort study Downs [31], SIGN [40], Cho [30], EPHPP [38], NOS [44]
    Focus groups NICE [48], CASP [36]
    Interview study  
C 8 Sensitivity of tests? Diagnostic test accuracy study SIGN [42]
C 9 Specificity of tests? Diagnostic test accuracy study SIGN [42]
D 10 Risk factors (for transmission/colonization/infection/disease/exacerbation/complication)? Cohort study Downs [31], SIGN [40], Cho [30], EPHPP [38], NOS [44]
Case-control study Downs [31], SIGN [41], Cho [30], EPHPP [38], NOS [44]
Ecological study NICE [47]
Cross-sectional study Al-Jader [33], Loney [32], Hoy [45], Cho [30], NICE [47]
    Animal study Van der Worp [37]
E 11 Effects of intervention (in terms of efficacy/effectiveness/surrogate markers/adverse events/harms)? Controlled before-and-after study Downs [31], NICE [46], EPHPP [38]
    RCT Cochrane [35], Downs [31], SIGN [39], NICE [46], EPHPP [38]
    NRCT Downs [31], NICE [46], EPHPP [38]
    Cluster-randomized trial Downs [31], NICE [46], EPHPP [38]
    Cohort study Downs [31], SIGN [40], Cho [30], EPHPP [38], NOS [44]
    Case-control study Downs [31], SIGN [41], Cho [30], EPHPP [38], NOS [44]
    Uncontrolled before-and-after study Downs [31], NICE [46], EPHPP [38]
    Ecological study NICE [47]
    Interrupted time series EPOC [50], EPHPP [38]
    Self-controlled case series Cho [30], NOS [44], SIGN [41]
F 12 Feasible to implement? Cross-sectional study Al-Jader [33], Loney [32], Hoy [45], Cho [30], NICE [47]
    Cohort study Downs [31], SIGN [40], Cho [30], EPHPP [38], NOS [44]
    Focus groups NICE [48], CASP [36]
    Interview study  
F 13 Cost-effectiveness of the intervention? Cost-effectiveness (-benefit, -consequence) analysis SIGN [43], NICE [49], QHES [34]
    Cost-utility analysis QHES [34]
F 14 Acceptable to stakeholders? Focus groups NICE [48], CASP [36]
    Interview study  
    Cross-sectional study Al-Jader [33], Loney [32], Hoy [45], Cho [30], NICE [47]
F 15 Equitable? Cross-sectional study Al-Jader [33], Loney [32], Hoy [45], Cho [30], NICE [47]
    Cohort study Downs [31], SIGN [40], Cho [30], EPHPP [38], NOS [44]
F 16 Enablers/barriers to success? Cross-sectional study Al-Jader [33], Loney [32], Hoy [45], Cho [30], NICE [47]
    Interview study (observation) NICE [48], CASP [36]
    Document analysis  
    Focus groups  
    Process evaluation  
F 17 Coverage rates for positive population level effects? Cohort study Downs [31], SIGN [40], Cho [30], EPHPP [38], NOS [44]
    Non-economic modeling study SIGN [43], NICE [49]
F 18 Communication of advice? RCT Cochrane [35], Downs [31], SIGN [39], NICE [46], EPHPP [38]
    NRCT Downs [31], NICE [46], EPHPP [38]
    Cohort study Downs [31], SIGN [40], Cho [30], EPHPP [38], NOS [44]
    Cross-sectional study Al-Jader [33], Loney [32], Hoy [45], Cho [30], NICE [47]
    Focus groups NICE [48], CASP [36]
    Interview study  
F 19 Weighing and valuing of population preferences? Cross-sectional study Al-Jader [33], Loney [32], Hoy [5], Cho [30], NICE [47]
    Focus groups NICE [48], CASP [36]
    Interview study  
F 20 Effectiveness of alternative measures? Controlled before-after study Downs [31], NICE [46], EPHPP [38]
    RCT Cochrane [35], Downs [31], SIGN [39], NICE [46], EPHPP [38]
    NRCT Downs [31], NICE [46], EPHPP [38]
    Cluster-randomized trial Downs [31], NICE [46], EPHPP [38]
    Cohort study Downs [31], SIGN [40], Cho [30], EPHPP [38], NOS [44]
    Case-control study Downs [31], SIGN [41], Cho [30], EPHPP [38], NOS [44]
    Uncontrolled before-after study Downs [31], NICE [46], EPHPP [38]
    Ecological study NICE [47]
    Interrupted time series EPOC [50], EPHPP [38]
    Self-controlled case series Cho [30], NOS [44], SIGN [41]
  1. 1Domains A-F refer to the following domains of questions described under Results: A – Characteristics of the pathogen; B – Burden of disease; C – Diagnosis; D – Risk factors; E – Intervention; F – Implementation of intervention.
  2. 2See footnote 2 of Table 2 for complete names of the included QATs.
  3. 3For alternative QATs for animal studies, see the review by Krauth et al. [51] published after completion of our literature search.