Effect of Follow-up on Estimated Reduction in Breast Cancer Deaths Data are from the HIP Study of breast cancer screening. The plot shows point estimates and 95% confidence intervals for estimated reduction in breast cancer deaths, per 10,000 compliers (participants who would have receive breast cancer screening if offered) due to screening. "Fixed" refers to fixing the follow-up time before examining the data. The estimated reduction is computed as negative dcausal(t), where t is the fixed follow-up time. "Adaptive" is the proposed method that bases the follow-up time on the maximum, over time, of a Z-statistic, where confidence intervals are computed by bootstrapping. The estimated reduction is computed as negative dcausal(t*), where t* is the follow-up time based on the adaptive approach.