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Table 2 Absolute frequencies, outcome prevalences, exposure prevalences, crude and pooled prevalence ratio (PR) estimates, and relative confounding for the analysis of the modified data using underweight (weight for age Z-score < - 2) as the outcome, previous hospitalization as the risk factor and low birth weight as confounder (situation 1 modified).

From: Alternatives for logistic regression in cross-sectional studies: an empirical comparison of models that directly estimate the prevalence ratio

First stratum: Normal birth weight
  Underweight Normal All  
  N Prev. N N Exp. prev. = 19.2%
Ever in hospital 8 4.7% 163 171 PR = 2.40
Never 14 1.9% 704 718 M-H weight = 2.69
All 22 2.5% 867 889  
Second stratum: Low birth weight
  Underweight Normal All  
  N Prev. N N Exp. prev. = 31.1%
Ever in hospital 22 18.5% 97 119 PR = 2.71
Never 18 6.8% 246 264 M-H weight = 5.59
All 40 10.4% 343 383  
Combined strata: Normal and low birth weight
  Underweight Normal All Exp. prev. = 22.8%
  N Prev. N N PR (crude) = 3.17
Ever in hospital 30 10.3% 260 290 PR (M-H) = 2.61
Never 32 3.3% 950 982 Confounding = -17.8%
All 62 4.9% 1210 1272 P-value(het)*= 0.8
  1. * P-value for testing heterogeneity of the prevalence ratios across strata.