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Table 1 Nested case-control analyses with repeated sampling for increasing numbers of controls per case: Hazard ratio of pacemaker insertion associated with amiodarone dose* in 1340 elderly Quebec residents with atrial fibrillation

From: Comparison of nested case-control and survival analysis methodologies for analysis of time-dependent exposure

Controls per Case (n) Repeated Sampling (n) Mean HR† SD† of HR Min HR Max HR Mean Parameter Estimate SD of Parameter Estimates
4 100 2.14 0.51 1.27 3.59 0.73 0.23
8 100 2.19 0.41 1.39 3.86 0.77 0.18
16 100 2.02 0.22 1.55 2.51 0.70 0.11
32 100 2.07 0.15 1.78 2.55 0.73 0.07
64 100 2.02 0.11 1.82 2.33 0.70 0.05
  1. * The effect of amiodarone dose, represented by a binary time-dependent covariate (>200 mg vs. ≤200 mg), was adjusted for age, sex, and baseline sinus node or conduction disorder in all models.
  2. † HR, hazard ratio; SD, standard deviation.