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Table 1 The Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS)

From: Dealing with missing data in a multi-question depression scale: a comparison of imputation methods

  None or a little of the time Some of the time Good part of the time Most of the time
1. I feel down-hearted, blue, and sad. 1 2 3 4
2. Morning is when I feel the best. 4 3 2 1
3. I have crying spells or feel like it. 1 2 3 4
4. I have trouble sleeping through the night. 1 2 3 4
5. I eat as much as I used to. 4 3 2 1
6. I enjoy looking at, talking to, and being with attractive men/women. 4 3 2 1
7. I notice that I am losing weight. 1 2 3 4
8. I have trouble with constipation. 1 2 3 4
9. My heart beats faster than usual. 1 2 3 4
10. I get tired for no reason. 1 2 3 4
11. My mind is as clear as it used to be. 4 3 2 1
12. I find it easy to do the things I used to. 4 3 2 1
13. I am restless and can't keep still. 1 2 3 4
14. I feel hopeful about the future. 4 3 2 1
15. I am more irritable than usual. 1 2 3 4
16. I find it easy to make decisions. 4 3 2 1
17. I feel that I am useful and needed. 4 3 2 1
18. My life is pretty full. 4 3 2 1
19. I feel that others would be better off if I were dead. 1 2 3 4
20. I still enjoy the things I used to do. 4 3 2 1
  1. Scoring – The total score is calculated by adding the responses to the 20 questions. The maximum total is 80 (20 statements with a highest possible score of 4 each). The score is then converted into a total out of 100 by dividing the respondent's sum by 0.8. The cut points for the scale are:
  2. (1) < 50 : normal range
  3. (2) 50 – 59 : minimal or mild depression
  4. (3) 60 – 69 : moderate to marked depression
  5. (4) > 70 : severe depression