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Table 3 Diagnostic measures for imputation methods

From: Dealing with missing data in a multi-question depression scale: a comparison of imputation methods

Missing Data Scenario Method Mean SD Spearman % Misclassified Kappa
P = 0.10
N = 1379**
μ = 43.68
σ = 10.98
Random Selection 45.99* 10.65 0.906 15% (207) 0.684
  Preceding Question 44.69* 10.07 0.946 8.7% (120) 0.807
  Question Mean 43.75 9.84* 0.986 7.5% (104) 0.823
  Individual Mean 43.74 11.11 0.986 5.4% (74) 0.880
  Single Regression 44.03 10.71 0.981 5.6%(77) 0.873
  Multiple Imputation 44.01 10.73 0.987 4.7% (65) 0.893
P = 0.20
N = 1562**
μ = 43.64
σ = 10.98
Random Selection 47.25* 11.14 0.784 28.2% (440) 0.452
  Preceding Question 46.41* 9.79* 0.898 14.4% (225) 0.700
  Question Mean 43.59 8.88* 0.974 12.1% (189) 0.709
  Individual Mean 43.59 11.26 0.974 8.9% (139) 0.802
  Single Regression 44.03 10.65 0.966 9.6% (150) 0.781
  Multiple Imputation 44.06 10.49 0.976 7.0% (110) 0.839
P = 0.30
N = 1579**
μ = 43.62
σ = 10.93
Random Selection 49.09* 11.92* 0.610 41.0% (647) 0.267
  Preceding Question 48.62* 9.55* 0.867 23.6% (373) 0.549
  Question Mean 43.60 8.05* 0.958 14.9% (235) 0.629
  Individual Mean 43.66 11.33 0.955 10.8% (171) 0.760
  Single Regression 44.39 10.33 0.937 11.4%(180) 0.738
  Multiple Imputation 44.32 10.21 0.959 9.2% (145) 0.789
Q6
N = 1406**
μ = 43.49
σ = 10.89
Random Selection 45.62 10.38 0.901 16.6% (233) 0.649
  Preceding Question 41.66* 10.73 0.970 10.2% (143) 0.753
  Question Mean 43.43 9.67* 0.987 8.4% (118) 0.798
  Individual Mean 43.37 11.03 0.984 5.7% (80) 0.870
  Single Regression 43.66 10.67 0.978 6.8%(95) 0.842
  Multiple Imputation 43.67 10.61 0.986 5.8% (81) 0.866
MAR – Age and Sex
N = 1429**
μ = 43.60
σ = 10.90
Random Selection 45.85 10.48 0.885 18.1 %(259) 0.618
  Preceding Question 44.81 10.09 0.940 8.9% (127) 0.804
  Question Mean 43.63 9.65* 0.984 7.4% (106) 0.825
  Individual Mean 43.65 11.05 0.982 5.7% (82) 0.867
  Single Regression 43.89 10.67 0.978 7.1%(102) 0.835
  Multiple Imputation 43.91 10.58 0.985 5.3% (77) 0.877
MNAR
N = 1406**
μ = 43.51
σ = 10.80
Random Selection 45.82* 10.46 0.899 15.7% (221) 0.741
  Preceding Question 44.44 10.06 0.947 9.7% (136) 0.839
  Question Mean 43.51 9.66* 0.987 8.4% (118) 0.850
  Individual Mean 43.50 10.90 0.985 5.9% (83) 0.902
  Single Regression 43.54 10.78 0.975 7.7% (108) 0.871
  Multiple Imputation 43.54 10.65 0.986 6.1% (86) 0.897
  1. * significant difference from the population statistics at 95% confidence
  2. ** Participants for which no observations were randomly deleted are excluded from the analysis. When there are no missing values to impute, the calculated score is the same as the known "true" score thus the scores correlate perfectly (spearman = 1.0)