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Table 5 Prevalence of risks and problems identified with the HRA-O questionnaire at the three study sites

From: Development, feasibility and performance of a health risk appraisal questionnaire for older persons

Domain Definition of problem/risk London (U.K.) Hamburg (Germany) Solothurn (Switzerland)
Accident prevention Driving without using seat belt 16.6% (174/1051) 4.8% (37/765) 12.7% (90/707)
Alcohol use Possible hazardous alcohol use 20.4% (219/1071) 18.8% (133/706) 14.4% (85/591)
Falls History of repeated falls in previous 12 months 10.6% (111/1048) 7.5% (58/772) 7.2% (50/691)
  Self-reported limitation of activities due to fear of falling 21.6% (230/1064) 24.1% (189/785) 23.5% (167/711)
Functional status Difficulty in ≥1 BADL item 4.0% (43/1076) 10.4% (82/790) 6.4% (47/730)
  Difficulty/need for human assistance in ≥2 IADL item 16.7% (178/1063) 23.2% (182/785) 19.1% (135/708)
  Changed way of doing an activity 51.9% (544/1048) 46.7% (362/775) 51.6% (366/709)
  Decreased frequency of activity 36.8% (379/1029) 37.5% (285/760) 37.4% (262/700)
Health status Moderate or fair self-perceived health status 22.1% (239/1080) 29.9% (238/796) 15.9% (116/730)
Hearing Impaired hearing 20.7% (206/994) 20.4% (155/759) 28.5% (178/624)
  No hearing check-up in previous year 84.6% (908/1073) 63.9% (508/795) 66.2% (473/715)
Incontinence Urinary incontinence on > 5 days during the last year 10.7% (111/1042) 27.2% (210/772) 20.6% (144/698)
Medication use Use of ≥4 medications 34.2% (361/1056) 44.3% (332/749) 30.4% (200/657)
  Use of long-acting benzodiazepine or amitriptyline 5.6% (59/1053) 7.6% (58/768) 7.5% (54/719)
  Medication side effect 11.9% (123/1030) 15.1% (114/755) 9.8% (64/652)
  Difficulties with medication compliance 9.4% (90/961) 8.0% (53/660) 5.9% (33/564)
Medical History Presence of three or more chronic condition(s) 33.4% (354/1059) 52.2% (396/758) 39.5% (279/707)
Memory Memory problems 10.2% (107/1053) 5.2% (41/781) 6.6% (46/701)
Mood Depressive mood 14.3% (155/1085) 24.1% (191/792) 14.4% (105/731)
Nutrition Consumption of >2 high fat food items per day 76.1% (788/1035) 35.1% (258/735) 55.7% (354/635)
  Consumption of <5 fruit/fibre items per day 61.1% (635/1039) 81.2% (608/749) 74.8% (489/654)
  Body mass index <20 4.8% (49/1030) 2.3% (18/787) 2.0% (14/709)
  Body mass index ≥27 32.9% (339/1030) 41.0% (323/787) 52.9% (375/709)
  Loss of weight 3.4% (36/1069) 4.2% (33/795) 4.8% (35/734)
Oral Health Oral health problem 43.9% (463/1054) 28.5% (224/787) 27.1% (188/694)
  No dental check in previous year 25.9% (279/1077) 17.4% (139/797) 42.5% (306/720)
Physical activity Less than 5 times/week moderate or strenuous activity 90.7% (933/1029) 80.1% (595/743) 88.4% (524/593)
Preventative care No blood pressure check in previous year 17.1% (186/1087) 2.5% (20/792) 4.8% (35/734)
  Elevated self-reported blood pressure 67.5% (166/246) 61.0% (383/628) 58.4% (261/447)
  No mammography in previous 2 years (age < 70) 61.0% (94/154) not available 70.6% (72/102)
  No cervical smear in previous 3 years 89.7% (525/585) 36.8% (178/484) 60.7% (244/402)
  No cholesterol measurement in previous 5 years (age < 75) 43.2% (261/604) 6.0% (32/534) 24.9% (99/397)
  Elevated self-reported cholesterol (age < 75) 8.7% (8/92) 40.3% (94/233) 15.2% (5/33)
  No faecal occult blood test in previous year (age < 80) 93.0% (796/856) 35.0% (233/665) 68.5% (395/577)
  No blood glucose measurement in previous 3 years 78.7% (852/1082) 10.8% (85/784) 24.7% (172/695)
  No influenza vaccination in previous year 18.2% (198/1087) 40.7% (323/794) 53.9% (395/733)
  No pneumococcal vaccination (ever) 78.8% (853/1083) 89.7% (703/784) 91.3% (639/700)
Pain Presence of moderate to severe pain 27.9% (291/1044) 37.0% (282/762) 24.9% (166/667)
Social factors Low level of emotional support 10.6% (114/1076) 8.8% (69/784) 9.4% (64/681)
  High risk of social isolation 14.1% (152/1076) 19.1% (150/784) 9.7% (66/681)
  Marginal family ties 14.4% (155/1076) 18.1% (142/784) 6.6% (45/681)
  Marginal friendship ties 17.9% (193/1076) 20.8% (163/784) 18.5% (126/681)
  No participation in groups 32.2% (347/1077) 37.9% (301/795) 20.9% (149/713)
Tobacco use Current tobacco use 11.2% (114/1021) 13.1% (97/739) 13.3% (86/645)
Vision Problem in ≥1 vision sub-domain 16.5% (169/1026) 16.2% (125/770) 13.7% (93/681)
  No vision check-up in previous year 34.1% (369/1081) 28.3% (225/795) 38.3% (280/732)
  1. HRA-O: Health Risk Appraisal for Older Persons
  2. Values are percentages (nominator/denominator).
  3. Denominators vary due to missing individual answers.
  4. For definition of variables, see Table 1.