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Table 7 Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (in brackets) and percentages of non-responders indicating the factors associated with non-response to questionnaire items eliciting information on income.

From: Factors affecting study efficiency and item non-response in health surveys in developing countries: the Jamaica national healthy lifestyle survey

  Withholding income data
Sub-population Weighted estimates Un-weighted estimates
  % OR (95% C.I.) % OR (95% C.I.)
Highest education level**     
Primary & All Age 24.7 1.0 27.3 1.0
Secondary 34.7 1.73 (1.24, 2.41) 33.1 1.53 (1.17, 1.99)
Tertiary 27.7 1.55 (0.82, 2.93) 27.7 1.43 (0.93, 2.18)
Unemployed**     
Yes 42.4 1.0 40.5 1.0
No 25.1 0.48 (0.34, 0.67) 24.6 0.52 (0.41, 0.66)
Age categories (years)**     
15–24 43.5 1.0 41.9 1.0
25–34 21.1 0.37 (0.26, 0.53) 22.2 0.42 (0.30, 0.58)
35–44 26.2 0.56 (0.36, 0.85) 26.6 0.58 (0.42, 0.81)
45–54 21.5 0.55 (0.35, 0.86) 22.7 0.58 (0.39, 0.87)
55–64 31.3 0.77 (0.47, 1.26) 32.3 0.79 (0.53, 1.18)
65–75 38.4 0.99 (0.64, 1.53) 39.9 1.07 (0.72, 1.60)
Gender     
Male 27.9 1.00 27.9 1.00
Female 32.8 0.98 (0.71, 1.35) 31.5 1.01 (0.81, 1.28)
Health Regions**     
South East 25.8 1.00 25.0 1.00
North East 20.7 1.07 (0.39, 2.96) 22.9 1.27 (0.88, 1.83)
South 45.0 3.15 (1.26, 7.90) 45.5 3.32 (2.45, 4.49)
West 36.3 2.26 (1.18, 4.35) 35.0 2.30 (1.68, 3.15)
Socioeconomic Status 1     
Low 30.1 1.00 29.2 1.00
Middle 30.6 1.08 (0.74, 1.59) 31.2 1.12 (0.89, 1.42)
High 29.8 0.95 (0.43, 2.10) 29.5 1.03 (0.65, 1.61)
Urban resident     
No 28.6 1.0 28.8 1.0
Yes 32.3 1.54 (0.77, 3.07) 32.0 1.66 (1.29, 2.15)
  1. ** – P < 0.01
  2. 1 These categories represent socioeconomic status as perceived by the interviewer