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Table 2 Genetic relationship between the woman who undergoes the pregnancy and offspring in each conception group and predicted patterns of association between prenatal risk factor X and outcome Y for a) environmentally mediated and b) genetically mediated effects.

From: Do intrauterine or genetic influences explain the foetal origins of chronic disease? A novel experimental method for disentangling effects

   Association between X and Y
  Genetic relationship Between pregnant woman and offspring Environmental Mediation Genetic Mediation
Homologous IVF Yes yes yes
Sperm donation Yes yes yes
Embryo donation No yes no
Egg donation No yes no
Gestational Surrogacy No yes no