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Table 3 Examples of rates of exposure to pre and peri-natal risk factors in all conception groups

From: Do intrauterine or genetic influences explain the foetal origins of chronic disease? A novel experimental method for disentangling effects

  Homologous IVF
N (%)
Sperm donation
N (%)
Egg donation
N (%)
Embryo donation
N (%)
Gestational surrogacy
N (%)
Total
N (%)
High blood pressure during pregnancy requiring hospitalisation 40 (10.8%) 22 (13.1%) 37 (26.1%) 5 (17.2%) 1 (6.7%) 105 (14.5%)
High blood sugar during pregnancy 21 (6.0%) 10 (6.0%) 15 (10.7%) 0 -- 2 (13.3%) 48 (6.8%)
Cigarette smoking during pregnancy 25 (6.8%) 7 (4.2%) 4 (2.8%) 3 (10.3%) 1 (7.1%) 40 (5.5%)
Alcohol during pregnancy 89 (24.1%) 46 (27.4%) 34 (23.8%) 3 (10%) 3 (21.4%) 175 (24.1%)
Multiple birth 76 (20.1%) 45 (24.1%) 35 (24.1%) 6 (19.4%) 6 (37.5%) 168 (22.7%)
Low infant birth weight a 55 (14.7%) 33 (19.6%) 34 (23.4%) 5 (16.7%) 6 (40%) 133 (18.2%)
Low infant birth weight a (excluding multiple births) 20 (6.7%) 10 (8.0%) 15 (13.6%) 3 (12.5%) 1 (11.1%) 49 (8.6%)
  1. a low birth weight is defined as 2500 grams or less
  2. -- percentage not calculable