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Table 1 Characteristics of early refusers, early consenters, and late/non-responders for enrollment into the Millennium Cohort Study

From: Demographic and occupational predictors of early response to a mailed invitation to enroll in a longitudinal health study

  Early Refuser Early Consenter Late/Non-responder§¶
  N % N % N %
Sex       
Male 537 76.3 15,283 70.0 147,497 76.9
Female 167 23.7 6,537 30.0 44,370 23.1
Age quartile (years)       
17–23 88 12.5 2,994 13.7 47,596 24.8
24–29 106 15.0 3,761 17.2 46,958 24.5
30–37 178 25.3 6,186 28.4 51,107 26.6
≥38 332 47.2 8,879 40.7 46,206 24.1
Education       
No high school diploma 22 3.1 1,330 6.1 14,961 7.8
High school graduate 187 26.6 8,436 38.7 96,903 50.5
Some college 211 30.0 5,723 26.2 46,783 24.4
College graduate 147 20.9 3,874 17.7 22,953 12.0
Advanced degree 137 19.4 2,457 11.3 10,267 5.3
Marital status       
Married 492 69.9 14,074 64.5 103,076 53.7
Not married 212 30.1 7,746 35.5 88,791 46.3
Race/ethnicity       
White non-Hispanic 543 77.1 16,294 74.7 124,676 65.0
Black non-Hispanic 55 7.8 2,441 11.2 36,713 19.1
Hispanic 31 4.4 1,170 5.4 14,245 7.4
Asian/Pacific Islander 64 9.1 1,474 6.7 11,778 6.2
American Indian 6 0.9 194 0.9 1,731 0.9
Other 5 0.7 247 1.1 2,724 1.4
Service branch       
Army 201 28.6 9.907 45.4 86,120 44.9
Air Force 326 46.3 6,849 31.4 55,576 29.0
Navy 146 20.7 3,809 17.5 35,313 18.4
Marine Corps 21 3.0 982 4.5 12,635 6.6
Coast Guard 10 1.4 273 1.2 2,223 1.1
Duty status       
Active duty 313 44.5 9,734 44.6 103,069 53.7
Reserve/National Guard 391 55.5 12,086 55.4 88,798 46.3
Previous deployment experience #       
Non-deployed 502 71.3 15,873 72.7 134,177 69.9
Deployed 202 28.7 5,947 27.3 57,690 30.1
Occupational category       
Electrical/mechanical 80 11.4 2,923 13.4 31,798 16.6
Combat specialists 169 24.0 4,281 19.6 40,325 21.0
Electronic equipment repair 73 10.4 1,837 8.4 15,388 8.0
Communications/intelligence 39 5.5 1,481 6.8 12,827 6.7
Health care specialists 67 9.5 2,601 11.9 15,794 8.2
Other technical & allied specialists 12 1.7 580 2.7 4,722 2.4
Functional support specialists 158 22.4 4,562 20.9 34,713 18.1
Craft workers 23 3.3 700 3.2 6,852 3.6
Service and supply handlers 48 6.8 1,854 8.5 17,212 9.0
Trainees, other 35 5.0 1,001 4.6 12,236 6.4
  1. ** First enrollment into the Millennium Cohort Study.
  2. Early refusers are invitees who communicated their unwillingness to participate in the study prior to 01 September 2001.
  3. Early consenters are invitees who completed an online or paper survey prior to 01 September 2001.
  4. § Late/non-responders are invitees who responded after 01 September 2001 or failed to respond in any manner.
  5. Differences between early refusers, early consenters, and late/non-responders were tested with the Pearson chi-square test of association. All p values were < 0.001.
  6. # Previous deployment experience to southwest Asia, Bosnia, or Kosovo between 1998 and 2001.