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Table 2 Overall classification of RCTs reporting interim analysis or DMC use based on trial progress

From: The use of interim data and Data Monitoring Committee recommendations in randomized controlled trial reports: frequency, implications and potential sources of bias

Trial Progress Trials reporting interim analysis (with or without specification of a DMC) Trials identified as having extended use of interim data or DMC recommendations Trials identified as having extended use of interim data or DMC recommendations with the potential to introduce bias
Total (N) 586 74 28
Continued to or Extended beyond planned conclusion 457 55 26
Early stop for benefit 53 7 1
Early stop for harm 22 3 0
Stopped for futility 28 7 0
Early stop for other reasons 26 2 1