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Table 2 Markers of content-related and writing-related information in guidelines and feedback intended for authors and reviewers

From: Content and communication: How can peer review provide helpful feedback about the writing?

Content-related information Writing- or language-related information
Verbs denoting intellectual processes:
Interpret, analyze, discuss, assume, claim, synthesize, conclude
Verbs denoting communication processes:
Say, write, explain, clarify, mention, mean, claim, argue, maintain, suggest
Nouns denoting understanding of the content:
Interpretation, analysis, discussion, conclusion, assumptions, significance, reasoning, context, evidence, information, data, hypothesis, experimental design
Nouns denoting elements of the text:
Word, phrase, sentence, paragraph, section, text, manuscript, article, typo, misspelling, grammar, style, writing, explanation, flow, message, organization, readability, English, writing, language
Judgments denoting readers' reactions to the content:
Uninteresting/Interesting, unoriginal/original, innovative, valid, relevant, intriguing, trivial, superficial
Judgments denoting readers' reactions to the text as a written communication:
Hard/Easy to follow, well/poorly written, understandable, unclear/clear, confusing, unconvincing/convincing, well/inadequately documented