  
% Bias

% Coverage

% Statistical Power

I
^{2}(%)


  
τ = 0s

τ = 0.5s

τ = 0s

τ = 0.5s

τ = 0s

τ 0.5s

τ 0.5s


Δ

n (exp/contr)

k

MD

SMD

RoM

MD

SMD

RoM

MD

SMD

RoM

MD

SMD

RoM

MD

SMD

RoM

MD

SMD

RoM

MD

SMD

RoM


SMD = 0.2

10/10

5

0

4

0

1

5

0

95

97

96

90

92

91

15

11

12

15

13

12

59

48

45

 
10

0

5

1

0

5

1

95

97

96

92

93

93

27

22

23

19

18

16

60

48

45

 
30

0

5

1

0

6

1

94

96

95

94

94

93

66

61

60

38

38

34

60

47

46

MD = 14

100/100

5

0

0

0

0

1

2

96

97

96

88

88

87

82

82

82

21

21

22

93

92

91

RoM = 1.14
 
10

0

0

0

0

0

1

96

96

96

92

92

90

99

99

99

27

27

31

93

92

91

 
30

0

0

0

0

0

1

96

96

96

94

94

92

100

100

100

56

58

62

93

92

91

SMD = 0.5

10/10

5

0

4

1

0

5

1

95

97

95

90

92

91

64

57

58

43

40

38

59

48

47

 
10

0

5

2

0

5

2

95

97

95

92

93

92

91

89

88

66

64

61

60

47

47

 
30

0

5

2

0

6

3

94

96

92

94

93

91

100

100

100

98

97

97

60

47

48

MD = 35

100/100

5

0

0

0

0

0

2

96

97

96

88

88

87

100

100

100

61

61

63

93

92

91

RoM = 1.35
 
10

0

0

0

0

0

1

96

96

96

92

92

90

100

100

100

85

86

88

93

92

91

 
30

0

0

0

0

1

1

96

96

95

94

94

92

100

100

100

100

100

100

93

92

91

SMD = 0.8

10/10

5

0

4

1

0

5

2

95

97

95

90

92

90

95

94

93

74

72

71

59

47

48

 
10

0

5

2

0

5

3

95

96

94

92

92

91

100

100

100

95

95

94

60

46

48

 
30

0

5

3

0

6

4

94

94

90

94

92

89

100

100

100

100

100

100

60

46

49

MD = 56

100/100

5

0

0

0

0

0

2

96

96

96

88

88

87

100

100

100

91

91

92

93

92

91

RoM= 1.56
 
10

0

0

0

0

0

2

96

96

96

92

92

90

100

100

100

100

100

100

93

91

91

 
30

0

0

0

0

1

1

96

96

95

94

94

92

100

100

100

100

100

100

93

91

91

 Results of 10,000 simulations per scenario with a standard deviation equal to 70% of the control mean, for each combination of effect size (0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 standard deviation units), number of patients (10/10 and 100/100 experimental/control patients per trial), and number of trials (5, 10, and 30). The "% Bias" columns show the bias of each effect measure (MD, SMD, RoM) expressed as percentages of the expected values (negative sign denotes less than expected value), with and without heterogeneity. The "% coverage" columns show the percentage of cases that the true value falls within the 95% confidence interval of the simulated result, with and without heterogeneity. The "% statistical power" columns show the percentage of cases that the 95% confidence interval of the simulated result yields a significant treatment effect (i.e. excluding zero for MD and SMD, and one for RoM), with and without heterogeneity. The I
^{2} column shows the degree of heterogeneity only for the scenarios in which heterogeneity was introduced. (For all the scenarios without heterogeneity, the ratio of Q/(k1) was close to unity as expected, corresponding to I
^{2} = 0 [data not shown].)
 Abbreviations for Table and Legend: contr – control, exp – experimental, I
^{2} – I
^{2} heterogeneity measure, k – number of trials in each metaanalysis, n – number of experimental or number of control patients per trial, Q – Cochran's Q statistic for heterogeneity, MD – mean difference, RoM – ratio of means, s – standard deviation units, SMD – standardized mean difference.